Pregnancy after bariatric surgery: Maternal and fetal outcomes of 39 pregnancies and a literature review.J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2018; 44(4):681-690JO
We aimed to evaluate the impact of bariatric surgery (BS) on maternal and fetal outcomes.
A retrospective, descriptive, observational study of 39 pregnant women who underwent BS in our institution between 2010 and 2014 was carried out. A sample of women who became pregnant after BS was evaluated, based on data concerning pregnancy, childbirth, and newborns.
Of the 1182 patients who underwent BS at our institution during the study period, 1016 (85.9%) were women. Thirty-nine of these women (with an average age of 31 ± 4.8 years) became pregnant (one twin pregnancy) and 29 of the 39 had undergone a gastric bypass. The mean time interval between BS and pregnancy was 16.6 ± 4.8 months; however, 16 (41%) women became pregnant less than a year after BS. The pre-BS body mass index (BMI) of the 39 women was 44.5 ± 6.2 kg/m2 . The women had a mean BMI of 30.2 ± 3.8 kg/m2 when they got pregnant and they gained 13.2 ± 7.3 kg during pregnancy. Iron deficiency was observed in 18 (46.1%) women, 16 (45.7%) had vitamin B12 deficiency, 12 (66.8%) had zinc deficiency, and 20 (60.6%) had vitamin D deficiency. Three women developed gestational diabetes mellitus. Premature rupture of membranes occurred in two pregnancies, preterm delivery in five, and there was one spontaneous abortion. Cesarean section was performed in seven cases. The average newborn weight was 3002 ± 587 g, five were small for gestational age, and one had macrosomia. Three infants had to be admitted to an intensive care unit.
Although pregnancy after BS is safe and well tolerated, close monitoring by a multidisciplinary team is required to evaluate complications resulting from BS, especially a deficit of micronutrients.