The prevalence of multidrug-resistant Aeromonas spp. in the municipal wastewater system and their dissemination in the environment.Sci Total Environ. 2018 Jun 01; 626:377-383.ST
The objective of this study was to identify the determinants of antibiotic resistance and virulence of Aeromonas spp. isolated from treated wastewater (WW) and from samples of river water collected upstream (URW) and downstream (DRW) from the effluent discharge point. The resistance of Aeromonas spp. to antibiotics that are widely used in human and veterinary medicine, including beta-lactams, tetracyclines, glycylcyclines, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, was analyzed by disk diffusion method. The prevalence of hemolysins, aerolysins (virulence factors) and integrase genes was determined. A total of 83 Aeromonas spp. strains were selected from the isolates obtained from river water and wastewater samples. The highest percentage (81.8%) of multidrug-resistant isolates was noted in DRW samples. The analyzed isolates were most frequently resistant to beta-lactams, tetracyclines and aminoglycosides, whereas resistance to glycylcyclines was least common. Isolates resistant to beta-lactams most frequently harbored blaTEM and blaOXA genes. The group of genes encoding resistance to tetracyclines was most frequently represented by tet(E) and tet(O). Genes encoding virulence ahh1 (heat-labile hemolysin) or integrase intI1 occurred more frequently in the strains isolated from DRW than URW. An analysis of genetic relatedness revealed two main clusters - one with closely related WW and DRW isolates and one with less related isolates from all analyzed samples. The results of this study indicate that regardless of the applied treatment, municipal sewage may be a reservoir of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, antibiotic resistance and virulence genes and that treated water can contaminate other environmental domains.