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Spine-bellied sea snake (Hydrophis curtus) venom shows greater skeletal myotoxicity compared with cardiac myotoxicity.
Toxicon. 2018 Mar 01; 143:108-117.T

Abstract

For the first time the impedance-based xCELLigence real-time cell analysis system was used to measure the myotoxicity of sea snake venom. With a focus on the spine-bellied sea snake (Hydrophis curtus), the venom of four sea snake species and three terrestrial snake species were compared for myotoxicity against a human skeletal muscle cell line (HSkMC). Hydrophis curtus venom was also tested on a human cardiac muscle cell line (HCM). Surprisingly, all four sea snake venoms tested on HSkMC produced an initial 100-280% rise in xCELLigence cell index that peaked within the first two hours before falling. The cell index rise of H. curtus venom was correlated with the WST-1 cell proliferation assay, which demonstrated an increase in mitochondrial metabolism. The myotoxicity of H. curtus was 4.7-8.2 fold less potent than the other sea snakes tested, the Australian beaked sea snake (Hydrophis zweifeli), the elegant sea snake (Hydrophis elegans) and the olive sea snake (Aipysurus laevis). If our cell-based results translate to H. curtus envenomations, this implies that H. curtus would be less myotoxic than the other three. Yet the myotoxicity of H. curtus venom to cardiac muscle cells was nine times weaker than for skeletal muscle cells, providing evidence that the venom has a selective effect on skeletal muscle cells. This evidence, combined with the slow-acting nature of the venom, supports a digestive role for sea snake myotoxins.

Authors+Show Affiliations

College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Sciences, James Cook University, McGregor Road, Smithfield, Cairns 4878, Australia; Australian Institute of Tropical Health and Medicine (AITHM) and Centre for Biodiscovery and Molecular Development of Therapeutics (CBMDT), James Cook University, McGregor Road, Smithfield, Cairns 4878, Australia. Electronic address: vanessa.neale@my.jcu.edu.au.Australian Institute of Tropical Health and Medicine (AITHM) and Centre for Biodiscovery and Molecular Development of Therapeutics (CBMDT), James Cook University, McGregor Road, Smithfield, Cairns 4878, Australia. Electronic address: michael.smout@jcu.edu.au.Australian Institute of Tropical Health and Medicine (AITHM) and Centre for Biodiscovery and Molecular Development of Therapeutics (CBMDT), James Cook University, McGregor Road, Smithfield, Cairns 4878, Australia. Electronic address: jamie.seymour@jcu.edu.au.

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29355573

Citation

Neale, Vanessa, et al. "Spine-bellied Sea Snake (Hydrophis Curtus) Venom Shows Greater Skeletal Myotoxicity Compared With Cardiac Myotoxicity." Toxicon : Official Journal of the International Society On Toxinology, vol. 143, 2018, pp. 108-117.
Neale V, Smout MJ, Seymour JE. Spine-bellied sea snake (Hydrophis curtus) venom shows greater skeletal myotoxicity compared with cardiac myotoxicity. Toxicon. 2018;143:108-117.
Neale, V., Smout, M. J., & Seymour, J. E. (2018). Spine-bellied sea snake (Hydrophis curtus) venom shows greater skeletal myotoxicity compared with cardiac myotoxicity. Toxicon : Official Journal of the International Society On Toxinology, 143, 108-117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2018.01.009
Neale V, Smout MJ, Seymour JE. Spine-bellied Sea Snake (Hydrophis Curtus) Venom Shows Greater Skeletal Myotoxicity Compared With Cardiac Myotoxicity. Toxicon. 2018 Mar 1;143:108-117. PubMed PMID: 29355573.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Spine-bellied sea snake (Hydrophis curtus) venom shows greater skeletal myotoxicity compared with cardiac myotoxicity. AU - Neale,Vanessa, AU - Smout,Michael J, AU - Seymour,Jamie E, Y1 - 2018/01/31/ PY - 2017/10/03/received PY - 2017/12/31/revised PY - 2018/01/16/accepted PY - 2018/1/23/pubmed PY - 2019/1/10/medline PY - 2018/1/23/entrez KW - Cardiotoxicity KW - Hydrophis curtus KW - Myotoxicity KW - Sea snake venom KW - Spine-bellied sea snake KW - xCELLigence SP - 108 EP - 117 JF - Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology JO - Toxicon VL - 143 N2 - For the first time the impedance-based xCELLigence real-time cell analysis system was used to measure the myotoxicity of sea snake venom. With a focus on the spine-bellied sea snake (Hydrophis curtus), the venom of four sea snake species and three terrestrial snake species were compared for myotoxicity against a human skeletal muscle cell line (HSkMC). Hydrophis curtus venom was also tested on a human cardiac muscle cell line (HCM). Surprisingly, all four sea snake venoms tested on HSkMC produced an initial 100-280% rise in xCELLigence cell index that peaked within the first two hours before falling. The cell index rise of H. curtus venom was correlated with the WST-1 cell proliferation assay, which demonstrated an increase in mitochondrial metabolism. The myotoxicity of H. curtus was 4.7-8.2 fold less potent than the other sea snakes tested, the Australian beaked sea snake (Hydrophis zweifeli), the elegant sea snake (Hydrophis elegans) and the olive sea snake (Aipysurus laevis). If our cell-based results translate to H. curtus envenomations, this implies that H. curtus would be less myotoxic than the other three. Yet the myotoxicity of H. curtus venom to cardiac muscle cells was nine times weaker than for skeletal muscle cells, providing evidence that the venom has a selective effect on skeletal muscle cells. This evidence, combined with the slow-acting nature of the venom, supports a digestive role for sea snake myotoxins. SN - 1879-3150 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29355573/Spine_bellied_sea_snake__Hydrophis_curtus__venom_shows_greater_skeletal_myotoxicity_compared_with_cardiac_myotoxicity_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0041-0101(18)30023-0 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -