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Evaluation of dietary intake in children and college students with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Nutr Neurosci. 2019 Sep; 22(9):664-677.NN

Abstract

Objectives:

To evaluate dietary intake among individuals with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), to evaluate the likelihood that those with ADHD have inadequate intakes.

Methods:

Children, 7-12 years old, with (n = 23) and without (n = 22) ADHD, and college students, 18-25 years old, with (n = 21) and without (n = 30) ADHD comprised the samples. Children's dietary intake was assessed by a registered dietitian using 24-hour recalls over 3 days. College students kept a detailed food record over three days. Dietary information for both groups was entered into the Nutrition Data Systems for Research database, and output was analyzed using SAS 9.4. Nutrient analyses included the Healthy Eating Index-2010, Micronutrient Index (as a measure of overall micronutrient intake), and individual amino acids necessary for neurotransmission. Logistic regression was used to model the association of nutrient intake with ADHD. Models were adjusted for age, sex, IQ (or GPA), and energy intake (or total protein intake) as appropriate. Significance was evaluated at P = 0.05, and using the Benjamini-Hochberg corrected P-value for multiple comparisons.

Results:

No evidence existed for reduced nutrient intake among those with ADHD compared to controls in either age group. Across both groups, inadequate intakes of vitamin D and potassium were reported in 95% of participants. Children largely met nutrient intake guidelines, while college students failed to meet these guidelines for nine nutrients. In regards to amino acid intake in children, an increased likelihood of having ADHD was associated with higher consumption of aspartate, OR = 12.61 (P = 0.01) and glycine OR = 11.60 (P = 0.05); and a reduced likelihood of ADHD with higher intakes of glutamate, OR = 0.34 (P = 0.03). Among young adults, none of the amino acids were significantly associated with ADHD, though glycine and tryptophan approached significance. Discussion: Results fail to support the hypothesis that ADHD is driven solely by dietary micronutrient inadequacy. However, amino acids associated with neurotransmission, specifically those affecting glutamatergic neurotransmission, differed by ADHD status in children. Amino acids did not reliably vary among college students. Future larger scale studies are needed to further examine whether or not dietary intake of amino acids may be a modulating factor in ADHD.

Authors+Show Affiliations

a Center for Behavioral Neuroscience, Department of Health Studies, American University , Washington , DC , USA.b Department of Neurology, Oregon Health & Science University , Portland , OR , USA. c Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Oregon Health & Science University , Portland , OR , USA.d Department of Health Studies, American University , Washington , DC , USA.c Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Oregon Health & Science University , Portland , OR , USA.

Pub Type(s)

Evaluation Study
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29361884

Citation

Holton, Kathleen F., et al. "Evaluation of Dietary Intake in Children and College Students With and Without Attention-deficit/hyperactivity Disorder." Nutritional Neuroscience, vol. 22, no. 9, 2019, pp. 664-677.
Holton KF, Johnstone JM, Brandley ET, et al. Evaluation of dietary intake in children and college students with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Nutr Neurosci. 2019;22(9):664-677.
Holton, K. F., Johnstone, J. M., Brandley, E. T., & Nigg, J. T. (2019). Evaluation of dietary intake in children and college students with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Nutritional Neuroscience, 22(9), 664-677. https://doi.org/10.1080/1028415X.2018.1427661
Holton KF, et al. Evaluation of Dietary Intake in Children and College Students With and Without Attention-deficit/hyperactivity Disorder. Nutr Neurosci. 2019;22(9):664-677. PubMed PMID: 29361884.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Evaluation of dietary intake in children and college students with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. AU - Holton,Kathleen F, AU - Johnstone,Jeanette M, AU - Brandley,Elizabeth T, AU - Nigg,Joel T, Y1 - 2018/01/23/ PY - 2018/1/25/pubmed PY - 2020/1/18/medline PY - 2018/1/25/entrez KW - ADHD KW - Amino acids KW - Aspartate KW - Diet KW - Glutamate KW - Glycine KW - Neurotransmission KW - Nutrition KW - Tryptophan KW - Tyrosine KW - Vitamin D SP - 664 EP - 677 JF - Nutritional neuroscience JO - Nutr Neurosci VL - 22 IS - 9 N2 - Objectives: To evaluate dietary intake among individuals with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), to evaluate the likelihood that those with ADHD have inadequate intakes. Methods: Children, 7-12 years old, with (n = 23) and without (n = 22) ADHD, and college students, 18-25 years old, with (n = 21) and without (n = 30) ADHD comprised the samples. Children's dietary intake was assessed by a registered dietitian using 24-hour recalls over 3 days. College students kept a detailed food record over three days. Dietary information for both groups was entered into the Nutrition Data Systems for Research database, and output was analyzed using SAS 9.4. Nutrient analyses included the Healthy Eating Index-2010, Micronutrient Index (as a measure of overall micronutrient intake), and individual amino acids necessary for neurotransmission. Logistic regression was used to model the association of nutrient intake with ADHD. Models were adjusted for age, sex, IQ (or GPA), and energy intake (or total protein intake) as appropriate. Significance was evaluated at P = 0.05, and using the Benjamini-Hochberg corrected P-value for multiple comparisons. Results: No evidence existed for reduced nutrient intake among those with ADHD compared to controls in either age group. Across both groups, inadequate intakes of vitamin D and potassium were reported in 95% of participants. Children largely met nutrient intake guidelines, while college students failed to meet these guidelines for nine nutrients. In regards to amino acid intake in children, an increased likelihood of having ADHD was associated with higher consumption of aspartate, OR = 12.61 (P = 0.01) and glycine OR = 11.60 (P = 0.05); and a reduced likelihood of ADHD with higher intakes of glutamate, OR = 0.34 (P = 0.03). Among young adults, none of the amino acids were significantly associated with ADHD, though glycine and tryptophan approached significance. Discussion: Results fail to support the hypothesis that ADHD is driven solely by dietary micronutrient inadequacy. However, amino acids associated with neurotransmission, specifically those affecting glutamatergic neurotransmission, differed by ADHD status in children. Amino acids did not reliably vary among college students. Future larger scale studies are needed to further examine whether or not dietary intake of amino acids may be a modulating factor in ADHD. SN - 1476-8305 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29361884/Evaluation_of_dietary_intake_in_children_and_college_students_with_and_without_attention_deficit/hyperactivity_disorder_ L2 - https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/1028415X.2018.1427661 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -