Completion Rate and Safety of Tuberculosis Infection Treatment With Shorter Regimens.Pediatrics. 2018 02; 141(2)Ped
The traditional treatment of tuberculosis (TB) infection (9 months of daily isoniazid [9H]) is safe but completion rates of <50% are reported. Shorter regimens (3 months of once-weekly isoniazid and rifapentine [3HP] or 4 months of daily rifampin [4R]) are associated with improved adherence in adults.
This was a retrospective cohort study (2014-2017) of children (0-18 years old) seen at a children's TB clinic in a low-incidence nation. We compared the frequency of completion and adverse events (AEs) in children receiving 3HP, 4R, and 9H; the latter 2 regimens could be administered by families (termed self-administered therapy [SAT]) or as directly observed preventive therapy (DOPT); 3HP was always administered under DOPT.
TB infection treatment was started in 667 children: 283 (42.4%) 3HP, 252 (37.8%) 9H, and 132 (19.8%) 4R. Only 52% of children receiving 9H via SAT completed therapy. Children receiving 3HP were more likely to complete therapy than the 9H (SAT) group (odds ratio [OR] 27.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.8-63.7). Multivariate analyses found receipt of medication under DOPT (OR: 5.72, 95% CI: 3.47-9.43), increasing age (OR: 1.09, 95% CI: 1.02-1.17), and the absence of any AE (OR: 1.70, 95% CI: 0.26-0.60) to be associated with completing therapy. AEs were more common in the 9H group (OR: 2.51, 95% CI: 1.48-4.32). Two (0.9%) children receiving 9H developed hepatotoxicity; no child receiving 3HP or 4R developed hepatotoxicity.
Shorter regimens are associated with increased completion rates and fewer AEs than 9H.