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Dietary sodium to potassium ratio and the incidence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease: A population-based longitudinal study.
Clin Exp Hypertens. 2018; 40(8):772-779.CE

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

There is an interaction between dietary sodium/potassium intake in the pathogenesis of hypertension (HTN) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to investigate the association of dietary sodium to potassium (Na/K) ratio and the risk of HTN and CVD in a general population of Iranian adults.

METHODS

In this prospective cohort study, adults men and women with complete baseline data were selected from among participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study and were followed up for 6.3 years for incidence of HTN and CVD outcomes. Dietary sodium and potassium were assessed using a valid and reliable 168-item food frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between dietary sodium, potassium and their ratio and risk of outcomes.

RESULTS

During the study follow-up, 291 (15.1%) and 79 (5.0%) new cases of HTN and CVD were identified, respectively. No significant association was observed between usual intakes of sodium, potassium and dietary Na/K ratio with the incidence of HTN. There was no significant association between dietary intakes of sodium and potassium per se and the risk of CVD, whereas when dietary sodium to potassium ratio was considered as exposure in the fully-adjusted Cox regression model, and participants in the highest compared to lowest tertile had a significantly increased risk of CVD (HR = 2.19, 95% CI = 1.16-4.14).

CONCLUSIONS

Our findings suggest that high dietary Na/K ratio could contribute to increased risk of CVD events.

Authors+Show Affiliations

a Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology , National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.b Nutrition and Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences , Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.b Nutrition and Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences , Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.c Endocrine Research Center , Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29381403

Citation

Mirmiran, Parvin, et al. "Dietary Sodium to Potassium Ratio and the Incidence of Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease: a Population-based Longitudinal Study." Clinical and Experimental Hypertension (New York, N.Y. : 1993), vol. 40, no. 8, 2018, pp. 772-779.
Mirmiran P, Bahadoran Z, Nazeri P, et al. Dietary sodium to potassium ratio and the incidence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease: A population-based longitudinal study. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2018;40(8):772-779.
Mirmiran, P., Bahadoran, Z., Nazeri, P., & Azizi, F. (2018). Dietary sodium to potassium ratio and the incidence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease: A population-based longitudinal study. Clinical and Experimental Hypertension (New York, N.Y. : 1993), 40(8), 772-779. https://doi.org/10.1080/10641963.2018.1431261
Mirmiran P, et al. Dietary Sodium to Potassium Ratio and the Incidence of Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease: a Population-based Longitudinal Study. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2018;40(8):772-779. PubMed PMID: 29381403.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Dietary sodium to potassium ratio and the incidence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease: A population-based longitudinal study. AU - Mirmiran,Parvin, AU - Bahadoran,Zahra, AU - Nazeri,Pantea, AU - Azizi,Fereidoun, Y1 - 2018/01/30/ PY - 2018/1/31/pubmed PY - 2018/12/21/medline PY - 2018/1/31/entrez KW - Dietary sodium KW - cardiovascular disease KW - dietary potassium KW - hypertension SP - 772 EP - 779 JF - Clinical and experimental hypertension (New York, N.Y. : 1993) JO - Clin Exp Hypertens VL - 40 IS - 8 N2 - OBJECTIVE: There is an interaction between dietary sodium/potassium intake in the pathogenesis of hypertension (HTN) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to investigate the association of dietary sodium to potassium (Na/K) ratio and the risk of HTN and CVD in a general population of Iranian adults. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, adults men and women with complete baseline data were selected from among participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study and were followed up for 6.3 years for incidence of HTN and CVD outcomes. Dietary sodium and potassium were assessed using a valid and reliable 168-item food frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between dietary sodium, potassium and their ratio and risk of outcomes. RESULTS: During the study follow-up, 291 (15.1%) and 79 (5.0%) new cases of HTN and CVD were identified, respectively. No significant association was observed between usual intakes of sodium, potassium and dietary Na/K ratio with the incidence of HTN. There was no significant association between dietary intakes of sodium and potassium per se and the risk of CVD, whereas when dietary sodium to potassium ratio was considered as exposure in the fully-adjusted Cox regression model, and participants in the highest compared to lowest tertile had a significantly increased risk of CVD (HR = 2.19, 95% CI = 1.16-4.14). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that high dietary Na/K ratio could contribute to increased risk of CVD events. SN - 1525-6006 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29381403/Dietary_sodium_to_potassium_ratio_and_the_incidence_of_hypertension_and_cardiovascular_disease:_A_population_based_longitudinal_study_ L2 - https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10641963.2018.1431261 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -