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Short- and long-term consequences of intracranial injections of the excitotoxin, quinolinic acid, as evidenced by GFA immunohistochemistry of astrocytes.

Abstract

Astroglial reactions to intrastriatal and intrahypothalamic injections of the endogenous excitotoxin quinolinic acid (50 micrograms in 1 microliter) were studied in adult rats, using immunohistochemistry with antiserum to glial fibrillary acidic protein. Animals were sacrificed 6 h, 24 h, 3, 7 and 30 days or 1 year after the injection. Six and 24 h after quinolinic acid, the amount of glial fibrillary acidic protein-like immunoreactivity in the injected striatum was lower than in controls but returned to a normal level at 3 days. Not until 7 days was a clear striatal gliosis apparent, as evidenced by an increased density of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive structures and brightly fluorescent, clearly hypertrophic cells. This gliosis was even more developed in animals sacrificed 30 days postoperatively. A weak astrocytic reaction was also observed in the ipsilateral corpus callosum at 6 h after quinolinic acid. By 3 days, a marked gliosis restricted to the injected hemisphere was present throughout corpus callosum and cortex cerebri. In animals sacrificed 30 days after quinolinic acid the extrastriatal astrocytic reaction was clearly diminished, although the striatal gliosis was still prominent. One year postinjection, no obvious gliosis could be observed in cortex cerebri or corpus callosum while striatal tissue, now markedly reduced in volume, was clearly gliotic. Using neurofilament antiserum, increased fluorescence intensity was noted in striatal nerve bundles during the first day after an intrastriatal quinolinic acid injection and persisted 1 year postoperatively. Controls were similarly injected with an equimolar amount of nicotinic acid, the non-excitatory, non-neurotoxic decarboxylation product of quinolinic acid. No changes in immunoreactivity of glial fibrillary acidic protein or neurofilament were found in these animals. In animals treated intrahypothalamically, a spherical central area almost devoid of glial fibrillary acidic protein-immunoreactivity was noted around the injection site 7 days after quinolinic acid administration. Around this area, gliosis was observed. Apart from a very restricted gliotic reaction around the needle tract, no astrocytic reaction was observed in nicotinic acid-injected control animals. We conclude that quinolinic acid causes both reversible and long-lasting gliosis when injected into the rat striatum. As a natural brain metabolite, quinolinic acid may constitute a particularly valuable tool for the elucidation of a possible role of glia in neurodegenerative disorders.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors

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    Source

    Brain research 371:2 1986 Apr 23 pg 267-77

    MeSH

    Animals
    Astrocytes
    Behavior, Animal
    Corpus Striatum
    Female
    Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
    Histocytochemistry
    Hypothalamus
    Intermediate Filaments
    Male
    Microinjections
    Neurotoxins
    Pyridines
    Quinolinic Acid
    Quinolinic Acids
    Rats
    Rats, Inbred Strains
    Time Factors

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    2938667

    Citation

    Björklund, H, et al. "Short- and Long-term Consequences of Intracranial Injections of the Excitotoxin, Quinolinic Acid, as Evidenced By GFA Immunohistochemistry of Astrocytes." Brain Research, vol. 371, no. 2, 1986, pp. 267-77.
    Björklund H, Olson L, Dahl D, et al. Short- and long-term consequences of intracranial injections of the excitotoxin, quinolinic acid, as evidenced by GFA immunohistochemistry of astrocytes. Brain Res. 1986;371(2):267-77.
    Björklund, H., Olson, L., Dahl, D., & Schwarcz, R. (1986). Short- and long-term consequences of intracranial injections of the excitotoxin, quinolinic acid, as evidenced by GFA immunohistochemistry of astrocytes. Brain Research, 371(2), pp. 267-77.
    Björklund H, et al. Short- and Long-term Consequences of Intracranial Injections of the Excitotoxin, Quinolinic Acid, as Evidenced By GFA Immunohistochemistry of Astrocytes. Brain Res. 1986 Apr 23;371(2):267-77. PubMed PMID: 2938667.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Short- and long-term consequences of intracranial injections of the excitotoxin, quinolinic acid, as evidenced by GFA immunohistochemistry of astrocytes. AU - Björklund,H, AU - Olson,L, AU - Dahl,D, AU - Schwarcz,R, PY - 1986/4/23/pubmed PY - 1986/4/23/medline PY - 1986/4/23/entrez SP - 267 EP - 77 JF - Brain research JO - Brain Res. VL - 371 IS - 2 N2 - Astroglial reactions to intrastriatal and intrahypothalamic injections of the endogenous excitotoxin quinolinic acid (50 micrograms in 1 microliter) were studied in adult rats, using immunohistochemistry with antiserum to glial fibrillary acidic protein. Animals were sacrificed 6 h, 24 h, 3, 7 and 30 days or 1 year after the injection. Six and 24 h after quinolinic acid, the amount of glial fibrillary acidic protein-like immunoreactivity in the injected striatum was lower than in controls but returned to a normal level at 3 days. Not until 7 days was a clear striatal gliosis apparent, as evidenced by an increased density of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive structures and brightly fluorescent, clearly hypertrophic cells. This gliosis was even more developed in animals sacrificed 30 days postoperatively. A weak astrocytic reaction was also observed in the ipsilateral corpus callosum at 6 h after quinolinic acid. By 3 days, a marked gliosis restricted to the injected hemisphere was present throughout corpus callosum and cortex cerebri. In animals sacrificed 30 days after quinolinic acid the extrastriatal astrocytic reaction was clearly diminished, although the striatal gliosis was still prominent. One year postinjection, no obvious gliosis could be observed in cortex cerebri or corpus callosum while striatal tissue, now markedly reduced in volume, was clearly gliotic. Using neurofilament antiserum, increased fluorescence intensity was noted in striatal nerve bundles during the first day after an intrastriatal quinolinic acid injection and persisted 1 year postoperatively. Controls were similarly injected with an equimolar amount of nicotinic acid, the non-excitatory, non-neurotoxic decarboxylation product of quinolinic acid. No changes in immunoreactivity of glial fibrillary acidic protein or neurofilament were found in these animals. In animals treated intrahypothalamically, a spherical central area almost devoid of glial fibrillary acidic protein-immunoreactivity was noted around the injection site 7 days after quinolinic acid administration. Around this area, gliosis was observed. Apart from a very restricted gliotic reaction around the needle tract, no astrocytic reaction was observed in nicotinic acid-injected control animals. We conclude that quinolinic acid causes both reversible and long-lasting gliosis when injected into the rat striatum. As a natural brain metabolite, quinolinic acid may constitute a particularly valuable tool for the elucidation of a possible role of glia in neurodegenerative disorders. SN - 0006-8993 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/2938667/Short__and_long_term_consequences_of_intracranial_injections_of_the_excitotoxin_quinolinic_acid_as_evidenced_by_GFA_immunohistochemistry_of_astrocytes_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/0006-8993(86)90362-8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -