A randomized controlled trial of financial incentives to low income pregnant women to engage in smoking cessation treatment: Effects on post-birth abstinence.J Consult Clin Psychol. 2018 05; 86(5):464-473.JC
Evaluate the effectiveness of monetary incentives for increasing engagement in smoking cessation treatment and improving 6-month abstinence in low-income pregnant smokers.
Two-group randomized clinical trial recruiting low-income (Medicaid-registered) pregnant smokers receiving assistance through a perinatal support program. Participants were randomized to either an incentive (n = 505) or control condition (n = 509). All participants were offered identical smoking cessation counseling at contacts. Incentive condition participants received incentives for attending pre- and postbirth treatment contacts: $25 for each of 6 prebirth provider visits, $25-40 for each of 4 postbirth home visits at Weeks 1, 2, 4, and 6 (total = $130), $20 for each of 5 postbirth counseling calls and $40 for biochemically verified abstinence at the Week 1 and 6-month visits. Control condition participants received only $40 for attendance at the Week 1 and 6-month postbirth visits ($40 each).
Primary outcome was biochemically confirmed 7-day point-prevalence abstinence at 6-month postbirth follow-up. Secondary outcomes included number of home visits and phone calls taken over the first 6 months postbirth; biochemically confirmed abstinence at postbirth Week 1 visit; and self-reported smoking status at 2- and 4-month visits.
Incentive condition participants had a higher biochemically confirmed abstinence rate at 6-month postbirth than controls (14.7% vs. 9.2%, respectively: p < .01). This effect was mediated by incentive condition participants' greater acceptance of postbirth home visits and counseling calls.
Moderate incentive payments for smoking treatment engagement (a mean of ≈$214 paid) increased low-income pregnant smokers' engagement and success in smoking cessation treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record