Anti-inflammatory effect of cinnamaldehyde and linalool from the leaf essential oil of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira in endotoxin-induced mice.J Food Drug Anal. 2018 Jan; 26(1):211-220.JF
Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira is a Taiwan native plant that belongs to genus Cinnamomum and is also known as pseudocinnamomum or indigenous cinnamon. Its leaf is traditionally used by local people in cooking and as folk therapy. We previously demonstrated the chemical composition and anti-inflammatory effect of leaf essential oil of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira of linalool chemotype in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and on endotoxin-injected mice. The aim of the present study is to evaluate whether cinnamaldehyde and linalool the active anti-inflammatory compounds in leaf essential oil of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira. Before the injection of endotoxin, C57BL/6 mice of the experimental groups were administered cinnamaldehyde (0.45 or 0.9 mg/kg body weight) or linalool (2.6 or 5.2 mg/kg body weight), mice of the positive control group were administered the leaf essential oil (13 mg/kg body weight), and mice of the negative group were administered vehicle (corn oil, 4 mL/kg body weight) by gavage every other day for two weeks. All mice received endotoxin (i.p. 10 mg/mL/kg body weight) the next day after the final administration and were killed 12 h after the injection. Normal control mice were pretreated with vehicle followed by the injection with saline. None of the treatment found to affect body weight or food or water intake of mice before the injection of endotoxin. Cinnamaldehyde and linalool were found significantly reversed endotoxin-induced body weight loss and lymphoid organ enlargement compared with vehicle (P < 0.05). Both compounds also significantly lowered endotoxin-induced levels of peripheral nitrate/nitrite, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, and High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB-1), and levels of nitrate/nitrite, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-γ in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) (P < 0.05). Endotoxin-induced expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD2), Nod-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase-recruitment domain (ASC), and caspase-1 in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) were inhibited by all tested doses of cinnamaldehyde and linalool (P < 0.05). Subsequently, the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and the activity of caspase-1 in spleen and MLNs were also suppressed by these two compounds (P < 0.05). In addition, cinnamaldehyde and linalool at the dose equivalent to their corresponding content in the tested dose of the leaf essential oil, which was 0.9 mg/kg and 5.2 mg/kg, respectively, showed similar or slightly less inhibitory activity for most of these inflammatory parameters compared with that of the leaf essential oil. Our data confirmed the potential use of leaf essential oil of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira as an anti-inflammatory natural product and provide evidence for cinnamaldehyde and linalool as two potent agents for prophylactic use in health problems associated with inflammations that being attributed to over-activated TLR4 and/or NLRP3 signaling pathways.