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Dietary Sodium/Potassium Intake Does Not Affect Cognitive Function or Brain Imaging Indices.
Am J Nephrol. 2018; 47(1):57-65.AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Dietary sodium may influence cognitive function through its effects on cerebrovascular function and cerebral blood flow.

METHODS

The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of dietary sodium intake with cognitive decline in community-dwelling older adults. We also evaluated the associations of dietary potassium and sodium:potassium intake with cognitive decline, and associations of these nutrients with micro- and macro-structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indices. In all, 1,194 participants in the Health Aging and Body Composition study with measurements of dietary sodium intake (food frequency questionnaire [FFQ]) and change in the modified Mini Mental State Exam (3MS) were included.

RESULTS

The age of participants was 74 ± 3 years with a mean dietary sodium intake of 2,677 ± 1,060 mg/day. During follow-up (6.9 ± 0.1 years), 340 (28%) had a clinically significant decline in 3MS score (≥1.5 SD of mean decline). After adjustment, dietary sodium intake was not associated with odds of cognitive decline (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.50-1.84 per doubling of sodium). Similarly, potassium was not associated with cognitive decline; however, higher sodium:potassium intake was associated with increased odds of cognitive decline (OR 2.02 [95% CI 1.01-4.03] per unit increase). Neither sodium or potassium alone nor sodium:potassium were associated with micro- or macro-structural brain MRI indices. These results are limited by the use of FFQ.

CONCLUSIONS

In community-dwelling older adults, higher sodium:potassium, but not sodium or potassium intake alone, was associated with decline in cognitive function, with no associations observed with micro- and macro-structural brain MRI indices. These findings do not support reduction dietary sodium/increased potassium intake to prevent cognitive decline with aging.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Renal Diseases and Hypertension, University of Colorado Denver Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado, USA.Division of Renal-Electrolyte, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. Renal Section, Veterans Affairs Pittsburgh Healthcare System, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.Division of Renal Diseases and Hypertension, University of Colorado Denver Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado, USA. Renal Section, Medical Service, Denver Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Denver, Colorado, USA.Division of Nephrology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California, USA.Departments of Psychiatry, Neurology, and Epidemiology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.Division of Renal Diseases and Hypertension, University of Colorado Denver Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado, USA.Division of Renal Diseases and Hypertension, University of Colorado Denver Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29393090

Citation

Nowak, Kristen L., et al. "Dietary Sodium/Potassium Intake Does Not Affect Cognitive Function or Brain Imaging Indices." American Journal of Nephrology, vol. 47, no. 1, 2018, pp. 57-65.
Nowak KL, Fried L, Jovanovich A, et al. Dietary Sodium/Potassium Intake Does Not Affect Cognitive Function or Brain Imaging Indices. Am J Nephrol. 2018;47(1):57-65.
Nowak, K. L., Fried, L., Jovanovich, A., Ix, J., Yaffe, K., You, Z., & Chonchol, M. (2018). Dietary Sodium/Potassium Intake Does Not Affect Cognitive Function or Brain Imaging Indices. American Journal of Nephrology, 47(1), 57-65. https://doi.org/10.1159/000486580
Nowak KL, et al. Dietary Sodium/Potassium Intake Does Not Affect Cognitive Function or Brain Imaging Indices. Am J Nephrol. 2018;47(1):57-65. PubMed PMID: 29393090.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Dietary Sodium/Potassium Intake Does Not Affect Cognitive Function or Brain Imaging Indices. AU - Nowak,Kristen L, AU - Fried,Linda, AU - Jovanovich,Anna, AU - Ix,Joachim, AU - Yaffe,Kristine, AU - You,Zhiying, AU - Chonchol,Michel, Y1 - 2018/01/24/ PY - 2017/11/17/received PY - 2018/01/02/accepted PY - 2018/2/3/pubmed PY - 2019/8/27/medline PY - 2018/2/3/entrez KW - Ageing KW - Cognitive dysfunction KW - Epidemiology KW - Nutrition KW - Potassium KW - Risk factors KW - Sodium SP - 57 EP - 65 JF - American journal of nephrology JO - Am. J. Nephrol. VL - 47 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Dietary sodium may influence cognitive function through its effects on cerebrovascular function and cerebral blood flow. METHODS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of dietary sodium intake with cognitive decline in community-dwelling older adults. We also evaluated the associations of dietary potassium and sodium:potassium intake with cognitive decline, and associations of these nutrients with micro- and macro-structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indices. In all, 1,194 participants in the Health Aging and Body Composition study with measurements of dietary sodium intake (food frequency questionnaire [FFQ]) and change in the modified Mini Mental State Exam (3MS) were included. RESULTS: The age of participants was 74 ± 3 years with a mean dietary sodium intake of 2,677 ± 1,060 mg/day. During follow-up (6.9 ± 0.1 years), 340 (28%) had a clinically significant decline in 3MS score (≥1.5 SD of mean decline). After adjustment, dietary sodium intake was not associated with odds of cognitive decline (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.50-1.84 per doubling of sodium). Similarly, potassium was not associated with cognitive decline; however, higher sodium:potassium intake was associated with increased odds of cognitive decline (OR 2.02 [95% CI 1.01-4.03] per unit increase). Neither sodium or potassium alone nor sodium:potassium were associated with micro- or macro-structural brain MRI indices. These results are limited by the use of FFQ. CONCLUSIONS: In community-dwelling older adults, higher sodium:potassium, but not sodium or potassium intake alone, was associated with decline in cognitive function, with no associations observed with micro- and macro-structural brain MRI indices. These findings do not support reduction dietary sodium/increased potassium intake to prevent cognitive decline with aging. SN - 1421-9670 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29393090/Dietary_Sodium/Potassium_Intake_Does_Not_Affect_Cognitive_Function_or_Brain_Imaging_Indices_ L2 - https://www.karger.com?DOI=10.1159/000486580 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -