Evidence of the impact of monovalent rotavirus vaccine on childhood acute gastroenteritis hospitalization in Togo.Vaccine. 2018 11 12; 36(47):7185-7191.V
Monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) was introduced in the immunization schedule of Togo in June 2014. We evaluated the impact of rotavirus vaccines on acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and rotavirus-associated hospitalizations in Togolese children.
Sentinel surveillance for AGE (defined as ≥3 liquid or semi-liquid stools/24 h lasting <7 days) hospitalizations among children <5 years of age was conducted in two sites in the capital city, Lome. ELISA was used for diagnosis of rotavirus infection in children with AGE. Additionally, review of hospitalization registers was performed at five hospitals to assess trends in AGE hospitalizations among children aged <5 years. For the vaccine impact assessment, pre-rotavirus vaccine introduction (July 2010-June 2014) and post-rotavirus vaccine introduction (July 2014-June 2016) periods were compared for annual changes in proportions of hospitalizations associated with AGE and rotavirus.
During the pre-vaccine period, sentinel surveillance showed that 1017 patients were enrolled and 57% (range, 53-62%) tested positive for rotavirus, declining to 42% (23% reduction) in the first post-vaccine year and to 26% (53% reduction) in the second post-vaccine year; declines were most marked among infants. The patient register review showed that, compared with pre-vaccine rotavirus seasons, declines in hospitalizations due to all-cause AGE during post-vaccine rotavirus seasons were 48% among <1 year age-group in both first and second years following vaccine introduction. Among 1-4 year olds no reduction was noted in the first year and a 19% decline occurred in the second year.
We report rapid and marked reduction in the number of AGE hospitalizations and the proportion of AGE hospitalizations attributable to rotavirus in the first two years post- RV1 implementation in Togo. It is necessary to monitor long-term vaccine impact on rotavirus disease burden through continued surveillance.