Toxicity assessment of pyriproxyfen in vertebrate model zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio): A multi biomarker study.Aquat Toxicol 2018; 196:132-145AT
Pyriproxyfen (2-[1-methyl-2-(4-phenoxyphenoxy) ethoxy] pyridine) (PPF), a pyridine-based pesticide widely used to control agricultural insect pests and mosquitoes in drinking water sources. However, its ecotoxicological data is limited in aquatic vertebrates particularly in fish. Hence, the present study aimed to evaluate the adverse effect of PPF in zebrafish embryo development (Danio rerio). In order to investigate the impact of PPF, embryos were exposed to 0.16, 0.33 and 1.66 μg/mL (0.52, 1.04 and 5.2 μM, respectively) for 96 hpf and various biomarker indices such as developmental toxicity (edema formation, hyperemia, heart size and scoliosis), oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and nitric oxide (NO)), antioxidant responses (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH)), biochemical (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and acid phosphatase (AP)), neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase (AChE)), genotoxicity (apoptosis and DNA damage) and histopathological changes were determined. The results showed that severe developmental deformities and changes in heart rate were observed in embryos treated with highest (1.66 μg/mL) concentration than the control (P < 0.05). Heart size measurement showed that, significant change in heart size (P < 0.01) was observed in embryos of 96 hpf only at 1.66 μg/mL PPF exposure. The oxidative stress was apparent at highest test concentration (1.66 μg/mL) as reflected by the elevated ROS, LPO and NO and changes in antioxidant enzyme activities including SOD, CAT, GST and GPx (P < 0.05). Besides, GSH level and AChE activity were significantly lowered in 1.66 μg/mL PPF exposed group than the control. After 96 hpf of PPF exposure, no significant changes were found in AP activity whereas, a biphasic response was observed in the LDH activity. There was no genotoxic effect in embryos exposed to PPF at 0.16 and 0.33 μg/mL, while significant (P < 0.05) DNA damage and apoptosis were found in 1.66 μg/mL treated group. Histopathological analysis revealed that exposure to PPF at 1.66 μg/mL resulted in thinning of heart muscles, pericardial edema and hyperemia while there was no obvious changes were observed in other treatment groups. Hence, the results of the present study demonstrate that PPF could cause adverse effect on early developmental stages of zebrafish at higher concentration.