Origin and dispersal of Hepatitis E virus.Emerg Microbes Infect. 2018 Feb 07; 7(1):11.EM
Hepatitis E virus (HEV, genus Orthohepevirus) is a common cause of hepatitis worldwide. Human-infecting HEV strains (Orthohepevirus A) include human-restricted and enzootic genotypes. Viruses in the Orthohepevirus A species also infect rabbits (HEV-3ra), camels, and swine. Using a selection-informed method, we dated the origin of the Orthohepevirus genus at least 21 million years ago, whereas the Orthohepevirus A species originated in Asia, most likely from a human-infecting ancestor that existed ~4500 to 6800 years ago. In this period, the appearance of large human settlements probably facilitated HEV emergence and spread. The earliest events in Orthohepevirus A evolutionary history involved the separation of the enzootic and human-restricted genotypes, as well as the split of the camel-infecting genotypes, which occurred during the time-frame of camel domestication. The place and timing of HEV-3ra divergence also correspond to the circumstances of rabbit domestication. This study clarifies the origin and historical events underlying HEV dispersal.