Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for GATA2 Deficiency Using a Busulfan-Based Regimen.Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2018 06; 24(6):1250-1259.BB
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) reverses the bone marrow failure syndrome due to GATA2 deficiency. The intensity of conditioning required to achieve reliable engraftment and prevent relapse remains unclear. Here, we describe the results of a prospective study of HSCT in 22 patients with GATA2 deficiency using a busulfan-based conditioning regimen. The study included 2 matched related donor (MRD) recipients, 13 matched unrelated donor (URD) recipients, and 7 haploidentical related donor (HRD) recipients. MRD and URD recipients received 4 days of busulfan and 4 days of fludarabine. HRD recipients received low-dose cyclophosphamide for 2 days, fludarabine for 5 days, 2 to 3 days of busulfan depending on cytogenetics, and 200 cGy total body irradiation. MRD and URD recipients received tacrolimus and short-course methotrexate for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. HRD recipients received high-dose post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) followed by tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. At a median follow-up of 24 months (range, 9 to 50), 19 of 22 patients were alive with reversal of the disease phenotype and correction of the myelodysplastic syndrome, including eradication of cytogenetic abnormalities. Three patients died: 1 from refractory acute myelogenous leukemia, 1 from GVHD, and 1 from sepsis. There was a 26% incidence of grades III to IV acute GVHD in the MRD and URD groups and no grades III to IV acute GVHD in the HRD cohort. Similarly, there was a 46% incidence of chronic GVHD in the MRD and URD cohorts, whereas only 28% of HRD recipients developed chronic GVHD. Despite excellent overall disease-free survival (86%), GVHD remains a limitation using standard prophylaxis for GVHD. We are currently extending the use of PTCy to the MRD and URD cohorts to reduce GVHD.