Synergism of mixtures of dicamba and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid herbicide formulations on the neotropical fish Cnesterodon decemmaculatus (Pisces, Poeciliidae).Environ Pollut. 2018 May; 236:33-39.EP
Dicamba (DIC) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) are two of the most applied auxinic herbicides worldwide, both individually and as part of a mixture. However, the toxicity and interactions achieved when applied as a mixture have not yet been characterised. The equitoxic and non-equitoxic acute toxicity exerted by binary mixtures of Banvel® (57.71% DIC) and DMA® (58.4% 2,4-D) on the Neotropical fish Cnesterodon decemmaculatus were evaluated. Results revealed mean values of 1.02 (range, 0.96-1.08) for the toxic unit (TU) that induced 50% mortality (TU50 96 h) to the fish exposed to binary equitoxic mixtures of the commercial formulations Banvel®-DMA®. These results suggest that the mixture is nearly concentration additive. Furthermore, results demonstrated the occurrence of synergistic interaction when non-equitoxic combinations of Banvel®-or DMA®-formulated herbicides were assayed. In this context and regardless of their concentrations, either Banvel®- or DMA®-induced toxicity were synergised by the presence of the counterpart within mixtures. The present study represents the first evidence of the lethality exerted by mixtures of two auxinic herbicides-namely, DIC and 2,4-D-reported to date for fish and other biotic matrices. When C. decemmaculatus is used as the target organism, a synergistic pattern is observed following exposure to a mixture of both herbicides.