Assessment of anthelmintic activity and bio-guided chemical analysis of Persea americana seed extracts.Vet Parasitol. 2018 Feb 15; 251:34-43.VP
The aim of this study was to characterize the extracts and fractions of Persea americana Mill. (Avocado) seeds and to determine the composition and the in vitro anthelmintic activity against third-stage larvae (L3) of Haemonchus contortus. The fresh (F) and dried (H) avocado seeds (PA) were subjected to extraction with hot water (W-PAF, W-PAH), ethanol (E-PAF, E-PAH) or methanol 70% (v/v), and partition with solvents of increasing polarity [n-hexane (H-PAF, H-PAH), chloroform (C-PAF, C-PAH), ethyl acetate (Ea-PAF, Ea-PAH), and n-butanol (B-PAF, B-PAH)], yielding a total of 14 extracts/fractions. After considering the yield, water solubility, and the preliminary results of the larval migration test (LMT), the E-PAF, E-PAH, H-PAF, and H-PAH were selected for further experiments. E-PAH presented an efficiency concentration of 50% (EC50) of 36 μg/mL on the LMT. E-PAH showed the greatest efficiency when its EC50 was compared to the other fractions (E-PAF = 147 μg/mL; H-PAF = 801 μg/mL; H-PAH = 77 μg/mL). After that, the E-PAH was chemically characterized, considering its quantitative polyphenolic and flavonoid contents by colorimetric and chromatographic techniques. E-PAH presented 50, 38, and 24 mg/g of dry matter of total phenol, condensed tannins (CT), and flavonoid contents, respectively. Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, E-PAH had shown to have epicatechin (4.7 μg/mL), rutin (2.8 μg/mL), and chlorogenic acid (1.4 μg/mL) as its main constituents besides quercetin. These isolated compounds were evaluated using the LMT in order to relate the composition to the anthelmintic activity observed for E-PAH. Quercetin (EC50 = 7.8 μg/mL) and epicatechin (EC50 = 10 μg/mL) presented a higher efficiency than rutin (EC50 = 30 μg/mL). Chlorogenic acid was also tested with the LMT but did not present a significant efficiency. According to the results, the phenolic composition of E-PAH and the EC50 values obtained for the isolated phenols, it can be suggested that, besides the CT content, the presence of epicatechin and rutin contributed to the larvicidal activity of E-PAH. In conclusion, avocado seeds may be used as a source of polyphenols with promising anthelmintic applications.