Effect of adding clay with or without a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product on the health and performance of lactating dairy cows challenged with dietary aflatoxin B1.J Dairy Sci 2018; 101(4):3008-3020JD
The study was conducted to examine the effect of supplementing bentonite clay with or without a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP; 19 g of NutriTek + 16 g of MetaShield, both from Diamond V, Cedar Rapids, IA) on the performance and health of dairy cows challenged with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Twenty-four lactating Holstein cows (64 ± 11 d in milk) were stratified by parity and milk production and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment sequences. The experiment had a balanced 4 × 4 Latin square design with 6 replicate squares, four 33-d periods, and a 5-d washout interval between periods. Cows were fed a total mixed ration containing 36.1% corn silage, 8.3% alfalfa hay, and 55.6% concentrate (dry matter basis). Treatments were (1) control (no additives), (2) toxin (T; 1,725 µg of AFB1/head per day), (3) T + clay (CL; 200 g/head per day; top-dressed), and (4) CL+SCFP (CL+SCFP; 35 g/head per day; top-dressed). Cows were adapted to diets from d 1 to 25 (predosing period) and then orally dosed with AFB1 from d 26 to 30 (dosing period), and AFB1 was withdrawn from d 31 to 33 (withdrawal period). Milk samples were collected twice daily from d 21 to 33, and plasma was sampled on d 25 and 30 before the morning feeding. Transfer of ingested AFB1 into milk aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) was greater in T than in CL or CL+SCFP (1.65 vs. 1.01 and 0.94%, respectively) from d 26 to 30. The CL and CL+SCFP treatments reduced milk AFM1 concentration compared with T (0.45 and 0.40 vs. 0.75 µg/kg, respectively), and, unlike T, both CL and CL+SCFP lowered AFM1 concentrations below the US Food and Drug Administration action level (0.5 µg/kg). Milk yield tended to be greater during the dosing period in cows fed CL+SCFP compared with T (39.7 vs. 37.7 kg/d). Compared with that for T, plasma glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase concentration, indicative of aflatoxicosis and liver damage, was reduced by CL (85.9 vs. 95.2 U/L) and numerically reduced by CL+SCFP (87.9 vs. 95.2 U/L). Dietary CL and CL+SCFP reduced transfer of dietary AFB1 to milk and milk AFM1 concentration. Only CL prevented the increase in glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase concentration, and only CL+SCFP prevented the decrease in milk yield caused by AFB1 ingestion.