Causative Role of Grapevine Red Blotch Virus in Red Blotch Disease.Phytopathology. 2018 Jul; 108(7):902-909.P
Grapevine red blotch virus (GRBV) has a monopartite single-stranded DNA genome and is the type species of the genus Grablovirus in the family Geminiviridae. To address the etiological role of GRBV in the recently recognized red blotch disease of grapevine, infectious GRBV clones were engineered from the genome of each of the two previously identified phylogenetic clades for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated inoculations of tissue culture-grown Vitis spp. plants. Following agroinoculation and one or two dormancy cycles, systemic GRBV infection was detected by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in Vitis vinifera exhibiting foliar disease symptoms but not in asymptomatic vines. Infected rootstock genotype SO4 (V. berlandieri × V. riparia) exhibited leaf chlorosis and cupping, while infection was asymptomatic in agroinoculated 110R (V. berlandieri × V. rupestris), 3309C (V. riparia × V. rupestris), and V. rupestris. Spliced GRBV transcripts of the replicase-associated protein coding region accumulated in leaves of agroinfected vines, as shown by reverse-transcription PCR; this was consistent with systemic infection resulting from virus replication. Additionally, a virus progeny identical in nucleotide sequence to the infectious GRBV clones was recovered from agroinfected vines by rolling circle amplification, cloning, and sequencing. Concomitantly, subjecting naturally infected grapevines to microshoot tip culture resulted in an asymptomatic plant progeny that tested negative for GRBV in multiplex PCR. Altogether, our agroinoculation and therapeutic experiments fulfilled Koch's postulates and revealed the causative role of GRBV in red blotch disease.