Impact of Micronutrients on the Immune Response of Animals.Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2018; 6:227-254AR
Vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) play an important role in regulating and shaping an immune response. Deficiencies generally result in inadequate or dysregulated cellular activity and cytokine expression, thereby affecting the immune response. Decreased levels of natural killer, granulocyte, and phagocytic cell activity and T and B cell proliferation and trafficking are associated with inadequate levels of micronutrients, as well as increased susceptibility to various adverse health conditions, including inflammatory disorders, infection, and altered vaccine efficacy. In addition, most studies of micronutrient modulation of immune responses have been done in rodents and humans, thus limiting application to the health and well-being of livestock and companion animals. This exploratory review elucidates the role of vitamins and minerals on immune function and inflammatory responses in animals (pigs, dogs, cats, horses, goats, sheep, and cattle), with reference to rodents and humans.