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Effects of a 12-week high-α-linolenic acid intervention on EPA and DHA concentrations in red blood cells and plasma oxylipin pattern in subjects with a low EPA and DHA status.
Food Funct. 2018 Mar 01; 9(3):1587-1600.FF

Abstract

The essential omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n3) can be converted into EPA and DHA. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a high-ALA diet on EPA and DHA levels in red blood cells (RBCs) and their oxylipins in the plasma of subjects with a low EPA and DHA status. Fatty acid concentrations [μg mL-1] and relative amounts [% of total fatty acids] in the RBCs of 19 healthy men (mean age 26.4 ± 4.6 years) were analyzed by means of GC-FID. Free plasma oxylipin concentrations were determined by LC-MS based targeted metabolomics. Samples were collected and analyzed at baseline (week 0) and after 1 (week 1), 3 (week 3), 6 (week 6), and 12 (week 12) weeks of high dietary ALA intake (14.0 ± 0.45 g day-1). ALA concentrations significantly (p < 0.001) increased from 1.44 ± 0.10 (week 0) to 4.65 ± 0.22 (week 1), 5.47 ± 0.23 (week 3), 6.25 ± 0.24 (week 6), and 5.80 ± 0.28 (week 12) μg mL-1. EPA concentrations increased from 6.13 ± 0.51 (week 0) to 7.33 ± 0.33 (week 1), 8.38 ± 0.42 (p = 0.021, week 3), 10.9 ± 0.67 (p < 0.001, week 6), and 11.0 ± 0.64 (p < 0.001, week 12) μg mL-1. DHA concentrations unexpectedly decreased from 41.0 ± 1.93 (week 0) to 37.0 ± 1.32 (week 1), 36.1 ± 1.37 (week 3), 35.1 ± 1.06 (p = 0.010, week 6), and 30.4 ± 1.09 (p < 0.001, week 12) μg mL-1. Relative ΣEPA + DHA amounts were unchanged during the intervention (week 0: 4.63 ± 0.19, week 1: 4.67 ± 0.16, week 3: 4.61 ± 0.13, week 6: 4.73 ± 0.15, week 12: 4.52 ± 0.11). ALA- and EPA-derived hydroxy- and dihydroxy-PUFA increased similarly to their PUFA precursors, although in the case of ALA-derived oxylipins, the concentrations increased less rapidly and to a lesser extent compared to the concentrations of their precursor FA. LA-derived oxylipins remained unchanged and arachidonic acid and DHA oxylipin concentrations were not significantly changed. Our results confirm that the intake of ALA is not a sufficient source for the increase of EPA + DHA in subjects on a Western diet. Specifically, a high-ALA diet results in increased EPA and declined DHA concentrations. However, the changes effectively balance each other out so that ΣEPA + DHA in RBCs - which is an established marker for health protective effects of omega-3-PUFA - remains constant. The PUFA levels in RBCs reflect the concentration and its changes in plasma hydroxy- and dihydroxy-PUFA concentrations for ALA and EPA.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Institute of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Leibniz University Hannover, Germany. schuchardt@nutrition.uni-hannover.de.Institute for Food Toxicology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Germany.Institute for Food Toxicology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Germany.Institute of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Leibniz University Hannover, Germany. schuchardt@nutrition.uni-hannover.de.Institute of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Leibniz University Hannover, Germany. schuchardt@nutrition.uni-hannover.de.Institute of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Leibniz University Hannover, Germany. schuchardt@nutrition.uni-hannover.de.Institute for Food Toxicology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Germany and Chair of Food Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Wuppertal, Germany.Institute of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Leibniz University Hannover, Germany. schuchardt@nutrition.uni-hannover.de.

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29459911

Citation

Greupner, Theresa, et al. "Effects of a 12-week High-α-linolenic Acid Intervention On EPA and DHA Concentrations in Red Blood Cells and Plasma Oxylipin Pattern in Subjects With a Low EPA and DHA Status." Food & Function, vol. 9, no. 3, 2018, pp. 1587-1600.
Greupner T, Kutzner L, Nolte F, et al. Effects of a 12-week high-α-linolenic acid intervention on EPA and DHA concentrations in red blood cells and plasma oxylipin pattern in subjects with a low EPA and DHA status. Food Funct. 2018;9(3):1587-1600.
Greupner, T., Kutzner, L., Nolte, F., Strangmann, A., Kohrs, H., Hahn, A., Schebb, N. H., & Schuchardt, J. P. (2018). Effects of a 12-week high-α-linolenic acid intervention on EPA and DHA concentrations in red blood cells and plasma oxylipin pattern in subjects with a low EPA and DHA status. Food & Function, 9(3), 1587-1600. https://doi.org/10.1039/c7fo01809f
Greupner T, et al. Effects of a 12-week High-α-linolenic Acid Intervention On EPA and DHA Concentrations in Red Blood Cells and Plasma Oxylipin Pattern in Subjects With a Low EPA and DHA Status. Food Funct. 2018 Mar 1;9(3):1587-1600. PubMed PMID: 29459911.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of a 12-week high-α-linolenic acid intervention on EPA and DHA concentrations in red blood cells and plasma oxylipin pattern in subjects with a low EPA and DHA status. AU - Greupner,Theresa, AU - Kutzner,Laura, AU - Nolte,Fabian, AU - Strangmann,Alena, AU - Kohrs,Heike, AU - Hahn,Andreas, AU - Schebb,Nils Helge, AU - Schuchardt,Jan Philipp, Y1 - 2018/02/20/ PY - 2018/2/21/pubmed PY - 2018/8/25/medline PY - 2018/2/21/entrez SP - 1587 EP - 1600 JF - Food & function JO - Food Funct VL - 9 IS - 3 N2 - The essential omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n3) can be converted into EPA and DHA. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a high-ALA diet on EPA and DHA levels in red blood cells (RBCs) and their oxylipins in the plasma of subjects with a low EPA and DHA status. Fatty acid concentrations [μg mL-1] and relative amounts [% of total fatty acids] in the RBCs of 19 healthy men (mean age 26.4 ± 4.6 years) were analyzed by means of GC-FID. Free plasma oxylipin concentrations were determined by LC-MS based targeted metabolomics. Samples were collected and analyzed at baseline (week 0) and after 1 (week 1), 3 (week 3), 6 (week 6), and 12 (week 12) weeks of high dietary ALA intake (14.0 ± 0.45 g day-1). ALA concentrations significantly (p < 0.001) increased from 1.44 ± 0.10 (week 0) to 4.65 ± 0.22 (week 1), 5.47 ± 0.23 (week 3), 6.25 ± 0.24 (week 6), and 5.80 ± 0.28 (week 12) μg mL-1. EPA concentrations increased from 6.13 ± 0.51 (week 0) to 7.33 ± 0.33 (week 1), 8.38 ± 0.42 (p = 0.021, week 3), 10.9 ± 0.67 (p < 0.001, week 6), and 11.0 ± 0.64 (p < 0.001, week 12) μg mL-1. DHA concentrations unexpectedly decreased from 41.0 ± 1.93 (week 0) to 37.0 ± 1.32 (week 1), 36.1 ± 1.37 (week 3), 35.1 ± 1.06 (p = 0.010, week 6), and 30.4 ± 1.09 (p < 0.001, week 12) μg mL-1. Relative ΣEPA + DHA amounts were unchanged during the intervention (week 0: 4.63 ± 0.19, week 1: 4.67 ± 0.16, week 3: 4.61 ± 0.13, week 6: 4.73 ± 0.15, week 12: 4.52 ± 0.11). ALA- and EPA-derived hydroxy- and dihydroxy-PUFA increased similarly to their PUFA precursors, although in the case of ALA-derived oxylipins, the concentrations increased less rapidly and to a lesser extent compared to the concentrations of their precursor FA. LA-derived oxylipins remained unchanged and arachidonic acid and DHA oxylipin concentrations were not significantly changed. Our results confirm that the intake of ALA is not a sufficient source for the increase of EPA + DHA in subjects on a Western diet. Specifically, a high-ALA diet results in increased EPA and declined DHA concentrations. However, the changes effectively balance each other out so that ΣEPA + DHA in RBCs - which is an established marker for health protective effects of omega-3-PUFA - remains constant. The PUFA levels in RBCs reflect the concentration and its changes in plasma hydroxy- and dihydroxy-PUFA concentrations for ALA and EPA. SN - 2042-650X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29459911/Effects_of_a_12_week_high_α_linolenic_acid_intervention_on_EPA_and_DHA_concentrations_in_red_blood_cells_and_plasma_oxylipin_pattern_in_subjects_with_a_low_EPA_and_DHA_status_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1039/c7fo01809f DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -