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Factor X activating Atractaspis snake venoms and the relative coagulotoxicity neutralising efficacy of African antivenoms.
Toxicol Lett. 2018 May 15; 288:119-128.TL

Abstract

Atractaspis snake species are enigmatic in their natural history, and venom effects are correspondingly poorly described. Clinical reports are scarce but bites have been described as causing severe hypertension, profound local tissue damage leading to amputation, and deaths are on record. Clinical descriptions have largely concentrated upon tissue effects, and research efforts have focused upon the blood-pressure affecting sarafotoxins. However, coagulation disturbances suggestive of procoagulant functions have been reported in some clinical cases, yet this aspect has been uninvestigated. We used a suite of assays to investigate the coagulotoxic effects of venoms from six different Atractaspis specimens from central Africa. The procoagulant function of factor X activation was revealed, as was the pseudo-procoagulant function of direct cleavage of fibrinogen into weak clots. The relative neutralization efficacy of South African Antivenom Producer's antivenoms on Atractaspis venoms was boomslang>>>polyvalent>saw-scaled viper. While the boomslang antivenom was the most effective on Atractaspis venoms, the ability to neutralize the most potent Atractaspis species in this study was up to 4-6 times less effective than boomslang antivenom neutralizes boomslang venom. Therefore, while these results suggest cross-reactivity of boomslang antivenom with the unexpectedly potent coagulotoxic effects of Atractaspis venoms, a considerable amount of this rare antivenom may be needed. This report thus reveals potent venom actions upon blood coagulation that may lead to severe clinical effects with limited management strategies.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Venom Evolution Lab, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia.Venom Evolution Lab, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia.Venom Evolution Lab, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia.Department of Biosciences, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP, UK.Venom Evolution Lab, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia.Venom Evolution Lab, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia.Venom Evolution Lab, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia.Venom Evolution Lab, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia.Venom Evolution Lab, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia.Alphabiotoxine Laboratory sprl, Barberie 15, 7911 Montroeul-au-bois, Belgium.Alphabiotoxine Laboratory sprl, Barberie 15, 7911 Montroeul-au-bois, Belgium.Mtoxins, 1111 Washington Ave, Oshkosh, WI 54901, USA.Venom Evolution Lab, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia. Electronic address: bgfry@uq.edu.au.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29462691

Citation

Oulion, Brice, et al. "Factor X Activating Atractaspis Snake Venoms and the Relative Coagulotoxicity Neutralising Efficacy of African Antivenoms." Toxicology Letters, vol. 288, 2018, pp. 119-128.
Oulion B, Dobson JS, Zdenek CN, et al. Factor X activating Atractaspis snake venoms and the relative coagulotoxicity neutralising efficacy of African antivenoms. Toxicol Lett. 2018;288:119-128.
Oulion, B., Dobson, J. S., Zdenek, C. N., Arbuckle, K., Lister, C., Coimbra, F. C. P., Op den Brouw, B., Debono, J., Rogalski, A., Violette, A., Fourmy, R., Frank, N., & Fry, B. G. (2018). Factor X activating Atractaspis snake venoms and the relative coagulotoxicity neutralising efficacy of African antivenoms. Toxicology Letters, 288, 119-128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2018.02.020
Oulion B, et al. Factor X Activating Atractaspis Snake Venoms and the Relative Coagulotoxicity Neutralising Efficacy of African Antivenoms. Toxicol Lett. 2018 May 15;288:119-128. PubMed PMID: 29462691.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Factor X activating Atractaspis snake venoms and the relative coagulotoxicity neutralising efficacy of African antivenoms. AU - Oulion,Brice, AU - Dobson,James S, AU - Zdenek,Christina N, AU - Arbuckle,Kevin, AU - Lister,Callum, AU - Coimbra,Francisco C P, AU - Op den Brouw,Bianca, AU - Debono,Jordan, AU - Rogalski,Aymeric, AU - Violette,Aude, AU - Fourmy,Rudy, AU - Frank,Nathaniel, AU - Fry,Bryan G, Y1 - 2018/02/17/ PY - 2017/12/24/received PY - 2018/02/08/revised PY - 2018/02/13/accepted PY - 2018/2/21/pubmed PY - 2018/3/29/medline PY - 2018/2/21/entrez KW - Antivenom KW - Coagulopathy KW - Fibrinogen KW - Snake KW - Thrombin KW - Venom SP - 119 EP - 128 JF - Toxicology letters JO - Toxicol. Lett. VL - 288 N2 - Atractaspis snake species are enigmatic in their natural history, and venom effects are correspondingly poorly described. Clinical reports are scarce but bites have been described as causing severe hypertension, profound local tissue damage leading to amputation, and deaths are on record. Clinical descriptions have largely concentrated upon tissue effects, and research efforts have focused upon the blood-pressure affecting sarafotoxins. However, coagulation disturbances suggestive of procoagulant functions have been reported in some clinical cases, yet this aspect has been uninvestigated. We used a suite of assays to investigate the coagulotoxic effects of venoms from six different Atractaspis specimens from central Africa. The procoagulant function of factor X activation was revealed, as was the pseudo-procoagulant function of direct cleavage of fibrinogen into weak clots. The relative neutralization efficacy of South African Antivenom Producer's antivenoms on Atractaspis venoms was boomslang>>>polyvalent>saw-scaled viper. While the boomslang antivenom was the most effective on Atractaspis venoms, the ability to neutralize the most potent Atractaspis species in this study was up to 4-6 times less effective than boomslang antivenom neutralizes boomslang venom. Therefore, while these results suggest cross-reactivity of boomslang antivenom with the unexpectedly potent coagulotoxic effects of Atractaspis venoms, a considerable amount of this rare antivenom may be needed. This report thus reveals potent venom actions upon blood coagulation that may lead to severe clinical effects with limited management strategies. SN - 1879-3169 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29462691/Factor_X_activating_Atractaspis_snake_venoms_and_the_relative_coagulotoxicity_neutralising_efficacy_of_African_antivenoms_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0378-4274(18)30067-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -