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Skin electronics from scalable fabrication of an intrinsically stretchable transistor array.
Nature 2018; 555(7694):83-88Nat

Abstract

Skin-like electronics that can adhere seamlessly to human skin or within the body are highly desirable for applications such as health monitoring, medical treatment, medical implants and biological studies, and for technologies that include human-machine interfaces, soft robotics and augmented reality. Rendering such electronics soft and stretchable-like human skin-would make them more comfortable to wear, and, through increased contact area, would greatly enhance the fidelity of signals acquired from the skin. Structural engineering of rigid inorganic and organic devices has enabled circuit-level stretchability, but this requires sophisticated fabrication techniques and usually suffers from reduced densities of devices within an array. We reasoned that the desired parameters, such as higher mechanical deformability and robustness, improved skin compatibility and higher device density, could be provided by using intrinsically stretchable polymer materials instead. However, the production of intrinsically stretchable materials and devices is still largely in its infancy: such materials have been reported, but functional, intrinsically stretchable electronics have yet to be demonstrated owing to the lack of a scalable fabrication technology. Here we describe a fabrication process that enables high yield and uniformity from a variety of intrinsically stretchable electronic polymers. We demonstrate an intrinsically stretchable polymer transistor array with an unprecedented device density of 347 transistors per square centimetre. The transistors have an average charge-carrier mobility comparable to that of amorphous silicon, varying only slightly (within one order of magnitude) when subjected to 100 per cent strain for 1,000 cycles, without current-voltage hysteresis. Our transistor arrays thus constitute intrinsically stretchable skin electronics, and include an active matrix for sensory arrays, as well as analogue and digital circuit elements. Our process offers a general platform for incorporating other intrinsically stretchable polymer materials, enabling the fabrication of next-generation stretchable skin electronic devices.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA. Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-803, Republic of Korea.Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.Department of Materials Engineering and Convergence Technology and ERI, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, 660-701, Republic of Korea.Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA. Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-803, Republic of Korea.Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29466334

Citation

Wang, Sihong, et al. "Skin Electronics From Scalable Fabrication of an Intrinsically Stretchable Transistor Array." Nature, vol. 555, no. 7694, 2018, pp. 83-88.
Wang S, Xu J, Wang W, et al. Skin electronics from scalable fabrication of an intrinsically stretchable transistor array. Nature. 2018;555(7694):83-88.
Wang, S., Xu, J., Wang, W., Wang, G. N., Rastak, R., Molina-Lopez, F., ... Bao, Z. (2018). Skin electronics from scalable fabrication of an intrinsically stretchable transistor array. Nature, 555(7694), pp. 83-88. doi:10.1038/nature25494.
Wang S, et al. Skin Electronics From Scalable Fabrication of an Intrinsically Stretchable Transistor Array. Nature. 2018 03 1;555(7694):83-88. PubMed PMID: 29466334.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Skin electronics from scalable fabrication of an intrinsically stretchable transistor array. AU - Wang,Sihong, AU - Xu,Jie, AU - Wang,Weichen, AU - Wang,Ging-Ji Nathan, AU - Rastak,Reza, AU - Molina-Lopez,Francisco, AU - Chung,Jong Won, AU - Niu,Simiao, AU - Feig,Vivian R, AU - Lopez,Jeffery, AU - Lei,Ting, AU - Kwon,Soon-Ki, AU - Kim,Yeongin, AU - Foudeh,Amir M, AU - Ehrlich,Anatol, AU - Gasperini,Andrea, AU - Yun,Youngjun, AU - Murmann,Boris, AU - Tok,Jeffery B-H, AU - Bao,Zhenan, Y1 - 2018/02/19/ PY - 2017/07/31/received PY - 2017/12/18/accepted PY - 2018/2/22/pubmed PY - 2018/5/23/medline PY - 2018/2/22/entrez SP - 83 EP - 88 JF - Nature JO - Nature VL - 555 IS - 7694 N2 - Skin-like electronics that can adhere seamlessly to human skin or within the body are highly desirable for applications such as health monitoring, medical treatment, medical implants and biological studies, and for technologies that include human-machine interfaces, soft robotics and augmented reality. Rendering such electronics soft and stretchable-like human skin-would make them more comfortable to wear, and, through increased contact area, would greatly enhance the fidelity of signals acquired from the skin. Structural engineering of rigid inorganic and organic devices has enabled circuit-level stretchability, but this requires sophisticated fabrication techniques and usually suffers from reduced densities of devices within an array. We reasoned that the desired parameters, such as higher mechanical deformability and robustness, improved skin compatibility and higher device density, could be provided by using intrinsically stretchable polymer materials instead. However, the production of intrinsically stretchable materials and devices is still largely in its infancy: such materials have been reported, but functional, intrinsically stretchable electronics have yet to be demonstrated owing to the lack of a scalable fabrication technology. Here we describe a fabrication process that enables high yield and uniformity from a variety of intrinsically stretchable electronic polymers. We demonstrate an intrinsically stretchable polymer transistor array with an unprecedented device density of 347 transistors per square centimetre. The transistors have an average charge-carrier mobility comparable to that of amorphous silicon, varying only slightly (within one order of magnitude) when subjected to 100 per cent strain for 1,000 cycles, without current-voltage hysteresis. Our transistor arrays thus constitute intrinsically stretchable skin electronics, and include an active matrix for sensory arrays, as well as analogue and digital circuit elements. Our process offers a general platform for incorporating other intrinsically stretchable polymer materials, enabling the fabrication of next-generation stretchable skin electronic devices. SN - 1476-4687 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29466334/Skin_electronics_from_scalable_fabrication_of_an_intrinsically_stretchable_transistor_array_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1038/nature25494 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -