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Effects of forage source and forage particle size as a free-choice provision on growth performance, rumen fermentation, and behavior of dairy calves fed texturized starters.
J Dairy Sci 2018; 101(5):4143-4157JD

Abstract

We investigated the interactive effects of forage source and forage particle size (PS) as a free-choice provision on growth performance, rumen fermentation, and behavior of dairy calves fed texturized starters. Forty-eight Holstein calves (42 ± 3 kg of body weight) were randomly assigned (n = 12 calves per treatment) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with the factors of forage source [alfalfa hay (AH) and wheat straw (WS)] and forage PS [(AH: medium = 1.96 mm or long = 3.93 mm) and (WS: medium = 2.03 mm or long = 4.10 mm), as geometric mean diameters]. The treatments were (1) AH with medium PS (AH-MPS), (2) AH with long PS (AH-LPS), (3) WS with medium PS (WS-MPS), and (4) WS with long PS (WS-LPS). Regardless of forage PS, the preweaning starter intake, dry matter intake, metabolizable energy intake, weaning body weight, and forage intake were greater for AH calves than WS calves. Average daily gain, average daily gain/metabolizable energy intake, feed efficiency, and final body weight of the calves did not differ among groups. An interaction of forage source and forage PS influenced acetate, propionate, and acetate-to-propionate ratio in the rumen on d 35, with the greatest acetate proportion and acetate-to-propionate ratio, but the least propionate proportion for AH-MPS calves than the other calves. The total volatile fatty acid concentration and the rumen proportions of propionate (d 70), butyrate (d 35), and valerate (d 35) were greater in AH-MPS calves than in AH-LPS calves. Calves fed AH had greater total volatile fatty acid concentration (d 35 and 70) and propionate proportion (d 70), but lesser ruminal proportions of butyrate (d 35 and 70), valerate (d 35 and 70), and acetate-to-propionate ratio (d 70) compared with calves fed WS. The ruminal valerate proportion (d 70) was greatest in WS-MPS calves than the other calves. An interaction of forage source and forage PS influenced preweaning standing time and starter eating time, with the least standing time for WS-MPS calves and the greatest eating starter time for AH-LPS calves. Calves fed AH spent less time for rumination, but devoted more time to non-nutritive oral behaviors than WS calves. Calves fed forage with long PS spent more time for rumination, eating forage, and spent less time lying and non-nutritive oral behaviors than medium PS. In conclusion, forage source and PS interacted, affecting behavior and rumen fermentation when calves were fed texturized starters. In addition, a desirable ruminal pH in dairy calves can be obtained with texturized starters.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Lorestan University, PO Box 465, Khorramabad, Iran 44316-68151.Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Lorestan University, PO Box 465, Khorramabad, Iran 44316-68151. Electronic address: arash.azarfar@gmail.com.Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Arak University, Arak 38156-88349, Iran.Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Lorestan University, PO Box 465, Khorramabad, Iran 44316-68151.Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton T6G 2P5, Canada. Electronic address: morteza1@uni-bonn.de.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29477531

Citation

Omidi-Mirzaei, H, et al. "Effects of Forage Source and Forage Particle Size as a Free-choice Provision On Growth Performance, Rumen Fermentation, and Behavior of Dairy Calves Fed Texturized Starters." Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 101, no. 5, 2018, pp. 4143-4157.
Omidi-Mirzaei H, Azarfar A, Mirzaei M, et al. Effects of forage source and forage particle size as a free-choice provision on growth performance, rumen fermentation, and behavior of dairy calves fed texturized starters. J Dairy Sci. 2018;101(5):4143-4157.
Omidi-Mirzaei, H., Azarfar, A., Mirzaei, M., Kiani, A., & Ghaffari, M. H. (2018). Effects of forage source and forage particle size as a free-choice provision on growth performance, rumen fermentation, and behavior of dairy calves fed texturized starters. Journal of Dairy Science, 101(5), pp. 4143-4157. doi:10.3168/jds.2017-13990.
Omidi-Mirzaei H, et al. Effects of Forage Source and Forage Particle Size as a Free-choice Provision On Growth Performance, Rumen Fermentation, and Behavior of Dairy Calves Fed Texturized Starters. J Dairy Sci. 2018;101(5):4143-4157. PubMed PMID: 29477531.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of forage source and forage particle size as a free-choice provision on growth performance, rumen fermentation, and behavior of dairy calves fed texturized starters. AU - Omidi-Mirzaei,H, AU - Azarfar,A, AU - Mirzaei,M, AU - Kiani,A, AU - Ghaffari,M H, Y1 - 2018/02/22/ PY - 2017/10/14/received PY - 2017/12/22/accepted PY - 2018/2/27/pubmed PY - 2018/10/3/medline PY - 2018/2/26/entrez KW - calf KW - forage KW - particle size KW - texturized SP - 4143 EP - 4157 JF - Journal of dairy science JO - J. Dairy Sci. VL - 101 IS - 5 N2 - We investigated the interactive effects of forage source and forage particle size (PS) as a free-choice provision on growth performance, rumen fermentation, and behavior of dairy calves fed texturized starters. Forty-eight Holstein calves (42 ± 3 kg of body weight) were randomly assigned (n = 12 calves per treatment) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with the factors of forage source [alfalfa hay (AH) and wheat straw (WS)] and forage PS [(AH: medium = 1.96 mm or long = 3.93 mm) and (WS: medium = 2.03 mm or long = 4.10 mm), as geometric mean diameters]. The treatments were (1) AH with medium PS (AH-MPS), (2) AH with long PS (AH-LPS), (3) WS with medium PS (WS-MPS), and (4) WS with long PS (WS-LPS). Regardless of forage PS, the preweaning starter intake, dry matter intake, metabolizable energy intake, weaning body weight, and forage intake were greater for AH calves than WS calves. Average daily gain, average daily gain/metabolizable energy intake, feed efficiency, and final body weight of the calves did not differ among groups. An interaction of forage source and forage PS influenced acetate, propionate, and acetate-to-propionate ratio in the rumen on d 35, with the greatest acetate proportion and acetate-to-propionate ratio, but the least propionate proportion for AH-MPS calves than the other calves. The total volatile fatty acid concentration and the rumen proportions of propionate (d 70), butyrate (d 35), and valerate (d 35) were greater in AH-MPS calves than in AH-LPS calves. Calves fed AH had greater total volatile fatty acid concentration (d 35 and 70) and propionate proportion (d 70), but lesser ruminal proportions of butyrate (d 35 and 70), valerate (d 35 and 70), and acetate-to-propionate ratio (d 70) compared with calves fed WS. The ruminal valerate proportion (d 70) was greatest in WS-MPS calves than the other calves. An interaction of forage source and forage PS influenced preweaning standing time and starter eating time, with the least standing time for WS-MPS calves and the greatest eating starter time for AH-LPS calves. Calves fed AH spent less time for rumination, but devoted more time to non-nutritive oral behaviors than WS calves. Calves fed forage with long PS spent more time for rumination, eating forage, and spent less time lying and non-nutritive oral behaviors than medium PS. In conclusion, forage source and PS interacted, affecting behavior and rumen fermentation when calves were fed texturized starters. In addition, a desirable ruminal pH in dairy calves can be obtained with texturized starters. SN - 1525-3198 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29477531/Effects_of_forage_source_and_forage_particle_size_as_a_free_choice_provision_on_growth_performance_rumen_fermentation_and_behavior_of_dairy_calves_fed_texturized_starters_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0022-0302(18)30162-0 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -