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Energy, nutrient and food content of snacks in French adults.
Nutr J. 2018 02 27; 17(1):33.NJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Snacking raises concern since it may lead to an additional energy intake and poor nutrient quality. A snacking occasion can be defined as any eating occasion apart from main meals, regardless of the amount or type of foods consumed. We described the frequency of snacking occasions according to daily timing in French adults, and compared them between each other, and with the main meals, in terms of energy intake, energy and nutrient density, and food content.

METHODS

This cross-sectional analysis included 104,265 adults from the NutriNet-Santé cohort. Food intake was estimated using 24-h records of weekdays. For each eating occasion, nutrient density and energy content and density were computed.

RESULTS

After weighting, 47.6% of our sample were men and mean age was 45.6 (15.3). Overall, 68% of participants ate at least one snack during the reported record, mainly in the morning or afternoon. Overall snack had a lower nutrient density [22.8 (SD = 278.3)] than main meals [25.8 (36.9) to 30.0 (30.4)]; but higher energy density [222.2 (163.3) kcal/100 g] than meals [133.9 (57.3) to 175.9 (99.6) kcal/100 g]. Morning snack was the snacking occasion with the lowest energy density [211 kcal/100 g], the lowest energy intake [104.1 kcal] and the highest nutrient density [60.1]. Afternoon and evening snacks had the highest energy loads [192.4 kcal and 207.6 kcal], but low nutrient scores [16 and 13, respectively]. The main food groups contributing to energy intake from snacks were fatty-sweet and sugary foods, fruit, hot beverages, and bread.

CONCLUSIONS

Our findings highlight the frequency of snacking and the varying nutritional quality of snacks over the day. The morning snack was shown to be healthier than afternoon and evening snacks.

TRIAL REGISTRATION

This study was conducted according to guidelines laid down in the Declaration of Helsinki, and all procedures were approved by the Institutional Review Board of the French Institute for Health and Medical Research (IRB Inserm No. 0000388FWA00005831) and the French Data Protection Authority (Commission Nationale Informatique et Libertés No. 908450 and No. 909216). Electronic informed consent was obtained from all participants (Clinical Trial no. NCT03335644).

Authors+Show Affiliations

Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Centre de Recherche en Epidémiologie et Statistique, Equipe de Recherche en Epidémiologie Nutritionnelle, Inserm (U1153), Inra (U1125), Cnam, 74 rue Marcel Cachin, F-93017, Bobigny, France. w.sihassen@eren.smbh.univ-paris13.fr.Université Libre de Bruxelles, Ecole de Santé publique, Centre de Recherche en Epidémiologie, Biostatistique et Recherche Clinique, Route de Lennik 808 - CP 598, 1070, Brussels, Belgium.Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA) - UR 1303 Alimentation et Sciences Sociales ALISS, 65 boulevard de Brandebourg, F-94025, Ivry sur Seine, France.Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Centre de Recherche en Epidémiologie et Statistique, Equipe de Recherche en Epidémiologie Nutritionnelle, Inserm (U1153), Inra (U1125), Cnam, 74 rue Marcel Cachin, F-93017, Bobigny, France.Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Centre de Recherche en Epidémiologie et Statistique, Equipe de Recherche en Epidémiologie Nutritionnelle, Inserm (U1153), Inra (U1125), Cnam, 74 rue Marcel Cachin, F-93017, Bobigny, France.Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Centre de Recherche en Epidémiologie et Statistique, Equipe de Recherche en Epidémiologie Nutritionnelle, Inserm (U1153), Inra (U1125), Cnam, 74 rue Marcel Cachin, F-93017, Bobigny, France.Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Centre de Recherche en Epidémiologie et Statistique, Equipe de Recherche en Epidémiologie Nutritionnelle, Inserm (U1153), Inra (U1125), Cnam, 74 rue Marcel Cachin, F-93017, Bobigny, France.Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Centre de Recherche en Epidémiologie et Statistique, Equipe de Recherche en Epidémiologie Nutritionnelle, Inserm (U1153), Inra (U1125), Cnam, 74 rue Marcel Cachin, F-93017, Bobigny, France.Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Centre de Recherche en Epidémiologie et Statistique, Equipe de Recherche en Epidémiologie Nutritionnelle, Inserm (U1153), Inra (U1125), Cnam, 74 rue Marcel Cachin, F-93017, Bobigny, France. Département de santé publique, Hôpital Avicenne, 125 rue de Stalingrad, F-93000, Bobigny, France.Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Centre de Recherche en Epidémiologie et Statistique, Equipe de Recherche en Epidémiologie Nutritionnelle, Inserm (U1153), Inra (U1125), Cnam, 74 rue Marcel Cachin, F-93017, Bobigny, France. MOISA, Université de Montpellier, INRA, CIRAD, CIHEAM-IAMM, Montpellier SupAgro, Montpellier, France.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29486784

Citation

Si Hassen, Wendy, et al. "Energy, Nutrient and Food Content of Snacks in French Adults." Nutrition Journal, vol. 17, no. 1, 2018, p. 33.
Si Hassen W, Castetbon K, Tichit C, et al. Energy, nutrient and food content of snacks in French adults. Nutr J. 2018;17(1):33.
Si Hassen, W., Castetbon, K., Tichit, C., Péneau, S., Nechba, A., Ducrot, P., Lampuré, A., Bellisle, F., Hercberg, S., & Méjean, C. (2018). Energy, nutrient and food content of snacks in French adults. Nutrition Journal, 17(1), 33. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12937-018-0336-z
Si Hassen W, et al. Energy, Nutrient and Food Content of Snacks in French Adults. Nutr J. 2018 02 27;17(1):33. PubMed PMID: 29486784.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Energy, nutrient and food content of snacks in French adults. AU - Si Hassen,Wendy, AU - Castetbon,Katia, AU - Tichit,Christine, AU - Péneau,Sandrine, AU - Nechba,Anouar, AU - Ducrot,Pauline, AU - Lampuré,Aurélie, AU - Bellisle,France, AU - Hercberg,Serge, AU - Méjean,Caroline, Y1 - 2018/02/27/ PY - 2017/04/25/received PY - 2018/02/09/accepted PY - 2018/3/1/entrez PY - 2018/3/1/pubmed PY - 2019/5/29/medline KW - Eating occasions KW - Eating patterns KW - Meal KW - Nutritional content KW - Snack SP - 33 EP - 33 JF - Nutrition journal JO - Nutr J VL - 17 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Snacking raises concern since it may lead to an additional energy intake and poor nutrient quality. A snacking occasion can be defined as any eating occasion apart from main meals, regardless of the amount or type of foods consumed. We described the frequency of snacking occasions according to daily timing in French adults, and compared them between each other, and with the main meals, in terms of energy intake, energy and nutrient density, and food content. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis included 104,265 adults from the NutriNet-Santé cohort. Food intake was estimated using 24-h records of weekdays. For each eating occasion, nutrient density and energy content and density were computed. RESULTS: After weighting, 47.6% of our sample were men and mean age was 45.6 (15.3). Overall, 68% of participants ate at least one snack during the reported record, mainly in the morning or afternoon. Overall snack had a lower nutrient density [22.8 (SD = 278.3)] than main meals [25.8 (36.9) to 30.0 (30.4)]; but higher energy density [222.2 (163.3) kcal/100 g] than meals [133.9 (57.3) to 175.9 (99.6) kcal/100 g]. Morning snack was the snacking occasion with the lowest energy density [211 kcal/100 g], the lowest energy intake [104.1 kcal] and the highest nutrient density [60.1]. Afternoon and evening snacks had the highest energy loads [192.4 kcal and 207.6 kcal], but low nutrient scores [16 and 13, respectively]. The main food groups contributing to energy intake from snacks were fatty-sweet and sugary foods, fruit, hot beverages, and bread. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the frequency of snacking and the varying nutritional quality of snacks over the day. The morning snack was shown to be healthier than afternoon and evening snacks. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was conducted according to guidelines laid down in the Declaration of Helsinki, and all procedures were approved by the Institutional Review Board of the French Institute for Health and Medical Research (IRB Inserm No. 0000388FWA00005831) and the French Data Protection Authority (Commission Nationale Informatique et Libertés No. 908450 and No. 909216). Electronic informed consent was obtained from all participants (Clinical Trial no. NCT03335644). SN - 1475-2891 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29486784/Energy_nutrient_and_food_content_of_snacks_in_French_adults_ L2 - https://nutritionj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12937-018-0336-z DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -