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Results of the first mapping of soil-transmitted helminths in Benin: Evidence of countrywide hookworm predominance.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018 03; 12(3):e0006241.PN

Abstract

BACKGROUND

National mapping of soil-transmitted helminth infections (STH) was conducted for the first time in all of the 77 districts of Benin (West Africa) from 2013 to 2015. This mapping aimed to provide basic epidemiological data essential for the implementation of the national strategy against the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in the context of achieving the WHO target of controlling these infections by 2020.

METHODS

In each district, 5 schools were purposively selected in 5 villages and 50 school-children (25 girls and 25 boys) from ages 8 to 14 years were randomly enrolled in each school. In total, 19,250 stool samples of school children (9,625 girls and 9,625 boys) from 385 schools were examined by Kato-Katz technique.

RESULTS

The three major species of STH (hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura) were observed with intra- and inter-specific variations in the prevalence and the intensity of these parasites. Hookworm infection was present in all of the surveyed districts with an average prevalence of 17.14% (95% CI 16.6%-17.6%). Among the infected schoolchildren, at national level, 90.82%, 6.73% and 2.45% of infections were of light, moderate and heavy parasite intensities respectively. A. lumbricoides infection, with a national average prevalence of 5.35% (95% CI 5.00%-5.60%),was the second most prevalent STH, and 84.37%, 14.27% and 1.36% of the infections were of light, moderate and heavy parasite intensities, respectively. T. trichiura had a national average prevalence of 1.15% (95% CI 0.90%-1.20%) and 80.45%, 13.18% and 6.36% infections were of light, moderate and heavy parasite intensities, respectively. The national cumulative prevalence of the three STH infections was 22.74% (95% CI 22.15%-23.33%), with58.44% (45/77) of the districts requiring mass treatment according to WHO recommendations. In all of the surveyed districts, multiple infections by STH species were common, and boys seemed more at risk of hookworm and Ascaris infections.

CONCLUSIONS

This first national mapping provided an overview of the epidemiological pattern of STH infections and was essential for the implementation of a control strategy with an effective preventive chemotherapy treatment (PCT). Results show that while preventive chemotherapy is not indicated for children in 32/77 districts, 43 require annual deworming and two require twice yearly deworming. If no environmental change occurs, and no mass treatment is delivered, prevalence is likely to remain stable for many years owing to poor hygiene and sanitation.

Authors+Show Affiliations

National Control Program of Communicable Diseases, Ministry of Health of Benin, Cotonou, Benin. Department of Zoology, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, University of Abomey-Calavi, Cotonou, Benin.Department of Zoology, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, University of Abomey-Calavi, Cotonou, Benin.Department of Zoology, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, University of Abomey-Calavi, Cotonou, Benin.Research Triangle Institute, Washington, District of Columbia, United States of America, Research Triangle Park, NC, United States of America.National Control Program of Communicable Diseases, Ministry of Health of Benin, Cotonou, Benin.Department of Zoology, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, University of Abomey-Calavi, Cotonou, Benin.Department of Zoology, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, University of Abomey-Calavi, Cotonou, Benin.Research Triangle Institute, Washington, District of Columbia, United States of America, Research Triangle Park, NC, United States of America.National Control Program of Communicable Diseases, Ministry of Health of Benin, Cotonou, Benin.Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Abomey-Calavi, Cotonou, Benin.Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Abomey-Calavi, Cotonou, Benin.Research Triangle Institute, Washington, District of Columbia, United States of America, Research Triangle Park, NC, United States of America.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29494579

Citation

Ibikounlé, Moudachirou, et al. "Results of the First Mapping of Soil-transmitted Helminths in Benin: Evidence of Countrywide Hookworm Predominance." PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, vol. 12, no. 3, 2018, pp. e0006241.
Ibikounlé M, Onzo-Aboki A, Doritchamou J, et al. Results of the first mapping of soil-transmitted helminths in Benin: Evidence of countrywide hookworm predominance. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018;12(3):e0006241.
Ibikounlé, M., Onzo-Aboki, A., Doritchamou, J., Tougoué, J. J., Boko, P. M., Savassi, B. S., Siko, E. J., Daré, A., Batcho, W., Massougbodji, A., Kindé-Gazard, D. A., & Kaboré, A. (2018). Results of the first mapping of soil-transmitted helminths in Benin: Evidence of countrywide hookworm predominance. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 12(3), e0006241. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006241
Ibikounlé M, et al. Results of the First Mapping of Soil-transmitted Helminths in Benin: Evidence of Countrywide Hookworm Predominance. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018;12(3):e0006241. PubMed PMID: 29494579.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Results of the first mapping of soil-transmitted helminths in Benin: Evidence of countrywide hookworm predominance. AU - Ibikounlé,Moudachirou, AU - Onzo-Aboki,Ablavi, AU - Doritchamou,Justin, AU - Tougoué,Jean-Jacques, AU - Boko,Pélagie Mimonnou, AU - Savassi,Boris S, AU - Siko,Edoux Joel, AU - Daré,Aboudou, AU - Batcho,Wilfrid, AU - Massougbodji,Achille, AU - Kindé-Gazard,Dorothée Akoko, AU - Kaboré,Achille, Y1 - 2018/03/01/ PY - 2017/06/27/received PY - 2018/01/17/accepted PY - 2018/03/13/revised PY - 2018/3/2/pubmed PY - 2018/6/19/medline PY - 2018/3/2/entrez SP - e0006241 EP - e0006241 JF - PLoS neglected tropical diseases JO - PLoS Negl Trop Dis VL - 12 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: National mapping of soil-transmitted helminth infections (STH) was conducted for the first time in all of the 77 districts of Benin (West Africa) from 2013 to 2015. This mapping aimed to provide basic epidemiological data essential for the implementation of the national strategy against the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in the context of achieving the WHO target of controlling these infections by 2020. METHODS: In each district, 5 schools were purposively selected in 5 villages and 50 school-children (25 girls and 25 boys) from ages 8 to 14 years were randomly enrolled in each school. In total, 19,250 stool samples of school children (9,625 girls and 9,625 boys) from 385 schools were examined by Kato-Katz technique. RESULTS: The three major species of STH (hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura) were observed with intra- and inter-specific variations in the prevalence and the intensity of these parasites. Hookworm infection was present in all of the surveyed districts with an average prevalence of 17.14% (95% CI 16.6%-17.6%). Among the infected schoolchildren, at national level, 90.82%, 6.73% and 2.45% of infections were of light, moderate and heavy parasite intensities respectively. A. lumbricoides infection, with a national average prevalence of 5.35% (95% CI 5.00%-5.60%),was the second most prevalent STH, and 84.37%, 14.27% and 1.36% of the infections were of light, moderate and heavy parasite intensities, respectively. T. trichiura had a national average prevalence of 1.15% (95% CI 0.90%-1.20%) and 80.45%, 13.18% and 6.36% infections were of light, moderate and heavy parasite intensities, respectively. The national cumulative prevalence of the three STH infections was 22.74% (95% CI 22.15%-23.33%), with58.44% (45/77) of the districts requiring mass treatment according to WHO recommendations. In all of the surveyed districts, multiple infections by STH species were common, and boys seemed more at risk of hookworm and Ascaris infections. CONCLUSIONS: This first national mapping provided an overview of the epidemiological pattern of STH infections and was essential for the implementation of a control strategy with an effective preventive chemotherapy treatment (PCT). Results show that while preventive chemotherapy is not indicated for children in 32/77 districts, 43 require annual deworming and two require twice yearly deworming. If no environmental change occurs, and no mass treatment is delivered, prevalence is likely to remain stable for many years owing to poor hygiene and sanitation. SN - 1935-2735 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29494579/Results_of_the_first_mapping_of_soil_transmitted_helminths_in_Benin:_Evidence_of_countrywide_hookworm_predominance_ L2 - http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006241 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -