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Gender Expression, Violence, and Bullying Victimization: Findings From Probability Samples of High School Students in 4 US School Districts.
J Sch Health. 2018 04; 88(4):306-314.JS

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Young people may experience school-based violence and bullying victimization related to their gender expression, independent of sexual orientation identity. However, the associations between gender expression and bullying and violence have not been examined in racially and ethnically diverse population-based samples of high school students.

METHODS

This study includes 5469 students (13-18 years) from the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys conducted in 4 urban school districts. Respondents were 51% Hispanic/Latino, 21% black/African American, 14% white. Generalized additive models were used to examine the functional form of relationships between self-reported gender expression (range: 1 = Most gender conforming, 7 = Most gender nonconforming) and 5 indicators of violence and bullying victimization. We estimated predicted probabilities across gender expression by sex, adjusting for sexual orientation identity and potential confounders.

RESULTS

Statistically significant quadratic associations indicated that girls and boys at the most gender conforming and nonconforming ends of the scale had elevated probabilities of fighting and fighting-related injury, compared to those in the middle of the scale (p < .05). There was a significant linear relationship between gender expression and bullying victimization; every unit increase in gender nonconformity was associated with 15% greater odds of experiencing bullying (p < .0001).

CONCLUSIONS

School-based victimization is associated with conformity and nonconformity to gender norms. School violence prevention programs should include gender diversity education.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Adolescent & Young Adult Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue (AU-Box 17, BCH 3189), Boston, MA 02115.The Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1476.Graduate School of Public Health, Core Investigator, Institute for Behavioral and Community Health, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182-4162.Department of Clinical Research Center, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115.Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115. Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115.Department of Social & Behavioral Sciences, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115. Division of Adolescent and Young Adult Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115.

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29498058

Citation

Gordon, Allegra R., et al. "Gender Expression, Violence, and Bullying Victimization: Findings From Probability Samples of High School Students in 4 US School Districts." The Journal of School Health, vol. 88, no. 4, 2018, pp. 306-314.
Gordon AR, Conron KJ, Calzo JP, et al. Gender Expression, Violence, and Bullying Victimization: Findings From Probability Samples of High School Students in 4 US School Districts. J Sch Health. 2018;88(4):306-314.
Gordon, A. R., Conron, K. J., Calzo, J. P., White, M. T., Reisner, S. L., & Austin, S. B. (2018). Gender Expression, Violence, and Bullying Victimization: Findings From Probability Samples of High School Students in 4 US School Districts. The Journal of School Health, 88(4), 306-314. https://doi.org/10.1111/josh.12606
Gordon AR, et al. Gender Expression, Violence, and Bullying Victimization: Findings From Probability Samples of High School Students in 4 US School Districts. J Sch Health. 2018;88(4):306-314. PubMed PMID: 29498058.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Gender Expression, Violence, and Bullying Victimization: Findings From Probability Samples of High School Students in 4 US School Districts. AU - Gordon,Allegra R, AU - Conron,Kerith J, AU - Calzo,Jerel P, AU - White,Matthew T, AU - Reisner,Sari L, AU - Austin,S Bryn, PY - 2016/11/17/received PY - 2017/07/24/revised PY - 2017/10/18/accepted PY - 2018/3/3/entrez PY - 2018/3/3/pubmed PY - 2019/11/2/medline KW - bullying KW - child and adolescent health KW - public health KW - special populations KW - stress KW - violence SP - 306 EP - 314 JF - The Journal of school health JO - J Sch Health VL - 88 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND: Young people may experience school-based violence and bullying victimization related to their gender expression, independent of sexual orientation identity. However, the associations between gender expression and bullying and violence have not been examined in racially and ethnically diverse population-based samples of high school students. METHODS: This study includes 5469 students (13-18 years) from the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys conducted in 4 urban school districts. Respondents were 51% Hispanic/Latino, 21% black/African American, 14% white. Generalized additive models were used to examine the functional form of relationships between self-reported gender expression (range: 1 = Most gender conforming, 7 = Most gender nonconforming) and 5 indicators of violence and bullying victimization. We estimated predicted probabilities across gender expression by sex, adjusting for sexual orientation identity and potential confounders. RESULTS: Statistically significant quadratic associations indicated that girls and boys at the most gender conforming and nonconforming ends of the scale had elevated probabilities of fighting and fighting-related injury, compared to those in the middle of the scale (p < .05). There was a significant linear relationship between gender expression and bullying victimization; every unit increase in gender nonconformity was associated with 15% greater odds of experiencing bullying (p < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: School-based victimization is associated with conformity and nonconformity to gender norms. School violence prevention programs should include gender diversity education. SN - 1746-1561 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29498058/Gender_Expression_Violence_and_Bullying_Victimization:_Findings_From_Probability_Samples_of_High_School_Students_in_4_US_School_Districts_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/josh.12606 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -