Co-inoculation of Lolium perenne with Funneliformis mosseae and the dark septate endophyte Cadophora sp. in a trace element-polluted soil.Mycorrhiza. 2018 Apr; 28(3):301-314.M
The presence of dark septate endophytes (DSEs) or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in plant roots and their effects on plant fitness have been extensively described. However, little is known about their interactions when they are simultaneously colonizing a plant root, especially in trace element (TE)-polluted soils. We therefore investigated the effects of Cadophora sp. and Funneliformis mosseae on ryegrass (Lolium perenne) growth and element uptake in a Cd/Zn/Pb-polluted soil. The experiment included four treatments, i.e., inoculation with Cadophora sp., inoculation with F. mosseae, co-inoculation with Cadophora sp. and F. mosseae, and no inoculation. Ryegrass biomass and shoot Na, P, K, and Mg concentrations significantly increased following AMF inoculation as compared to non-inoculated controls. Similarly, DSE inoculation increased shoot Na concentration, whereas dual inoculation significantly decreased shoot Cd concentration. Moreover, oxidative stress determined by ryegrass leaf malondialdehyde concentration was alleviated both in the AMF and dual inoculation treatments. We used quantitative PCR and microscope observations to quantify colonization rates. They demonstrated that DSEs had no effect on AMF colonization, while AMF colonization slightly decreased DSE frequency. We also monitored fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity in the rhizosphere soils. FDA hydrolysis remained unchanged in the three inoculated treatments, but AMF colonization increased AP activity and P mobility in the soil whereas DSE colonization did not alter AP activity. In this experiment, we unveiled the interactions between two ecologically important fungal groups likely to occur in roots which involved a decrease of oxidative stress and Cd accumulation in shoots. These results open promising perspectives on the fungal-based phytomanagement of TE-contaminated sites by the production of uncontaminated and marketable plant biomass.