Liquid and Foam Sclerotherapy for Spider and Varicose Veins.Surg Clin North Am. 2018 Apr; 98(2):415-429.SC
Sclerotherapy has wide applicability in treating venous disease at every stage of clinical disease. The various sclerosant drugs and formulations each have unique properties, utilities, and side effects. Treating physicians should be aware of the differences between agents, accounting for disease presentation, vein characteristics, and patient comorbidities when selecting the appropriate sclerosing agents. Successful outcomes rely on proper patient evaluation and assessment for contraindications to sclerotherapy. Thorough patient education regarding realistic expectations with sclerotherapy in terms of symptoms relief, recurrence, and improvement in appearance is of chief importance.