[Thoracic endometriosis complicated with pneumopericard and iterative pneumothorax due to bullous dystrophy].Rev Pneumol Clin. 2018 Apr; 74(2):104-108.RP
Thoracic endometriosis is a rare entity characterized by presence of endometrial tissue in pleura, lung parenchyma or airways. Most frequent manifestations are catamenial pneumothorax, hemothorax, hemoptysis and pulmonary nodules. We report here a rare case of a woman with thoracic endometriosis who developed iterative pneumothorax and pneumopericardium on bilateral bullous pulmonary dystrophy. She was a 37-year-old woman without any tobacco exposure and with previous history of pleural tuberculosis treated 5 years earlier. She was first referred to our centre for right pleuro-pneumothorax and hemorrhagic ascites. Pleural fluid examinations did not show any tuberculosis relapse, the evolution was favorable after thoracic drainage and there was no parenchymal lung abnormality on CT scan after surgery. Celioscopic peritoneal examination revealed stage IV peritoneal endometriosis. One year later, she was admitted for left catamenial pneumothorax. Thoracic CT scan showed apparition of large subpleural bulla. She underwent thoracotomy for bulla resection and left partial pleurectomy. Two years later, she was hospitalized for right pneumothorax and compressive pneumopericardium. Surgical lung biopsies confirmed pleuropulmonary endometriosis. Thoracotomy was performed for talcage pleurodesis and diaphragmatic leakages sutures. Lung bulla are rare in thoracic endometriosis, mechanism of their formation remains unknown. Pericardial involvement is rare in endometriosis; we report here a unique case of pneumopericardium.