Socioeconomic Status Associated With Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion in Japan: NIPPON DATA2010.J Epidemiol. 2018; 28 Suppl 3:S29-S34.JE
Although socioeconomic status (SES) may affect food and nutrient intakes, few studies have reported on sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intakes among individuals with various SESs in Japan. We investigated associations of SES with Na and K intake levels using urinary specimens in a representative Japanese population.
This was a cross-sectional study of 2,560 men and women (the NIPPON DATA2010 cohort) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Survey Japan in 2010. Casual urine was used to calculate estimated excretion in 24-hour urinary Na (E24hr-Na) and K (E24hr-K). The urinary sodium-to-potassium (Na/K) ratio was calculated from casual urinary electrolyte values. An analysis of covariance was performed to investigate associations of aspects of SES, including equivalent household expenditure (EHE), educational attainment, and job category, with E24hr-Na, E24hr-K, and the Na/K ratio for men and women separately. A stratified analysis was performed on educational attainment and the job category for younger (<65 years) and older (≥65 years) participants.
In men and women, average E24hr-Na was 176.2 mmol/day and 172.3, average E24hr-K was 42.5 and 41.3, and the average Na/K ratio was 3.61 and 3.68, respectively. Lower EHE was associated with a higher Na/K ratio in women and lower E24hr-K in men and women. A shorter education was associated with a higher Na/K ratio in women and younger men, and lower E24hr-K in older men and women.
Lower EHE and a shorter education were associated with a lower K intake and higher Na/K ratio estimated from casual urine specimens in Japanese men and women.