Sex comparisons of non-local muscle fatigue in human elbow flexors and knee extensors.J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 2018 03 01; 18(1):92-99.JM
To examine non-local muscle fatigue (NLMF) in both contralateral homologous and non-related heterogonous muscles for both sexes.
Ten men and nine women participated in this study. After the familiarization visit, subjects completed four separate randomly sequenced experimental visits, during which the fatiguing interventions (six sets of 30-second maximal isometric contractions) were performed on either their right elbow flexors or knee extensors. Before (Pre-) and after (Post-) the fatiguing interventions, the isometric strength and the corresponding surface electromyographic (EMG) amplitude were measured for the non-exercised left elbow flexors or knee extensors.
For the non-exercised elbow flexors, the isometric strength decreased for both sexes (sex combined mean±SE: Pre vs. Post=339.67±18.02 N vs. 314.41±16.37 N; p⟨0.001). For the non-exercised knee extensors, there is a time × sex interaction (p=0.025), showing a decreased isometric knee extension strength for men (Pre vs. Post =845.02±66.26 N vs. 817.39±67.64 N; p=0.019), but not for women.
The presence of NMLF can be affected by factors such as sex and muscle being tested. Women are less likely to demonstrate NLMF in lower body muscle groups.