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The Effects of Different Levels of Ambient Oxygen in an Oxygen-Enriched Surgical Environment and Production of Surgical Fires.

Abstract

Surgical fires require an oxygen-enriched environment, a flammable substrate, and an ignition source. We hypothesized ambient oxygen concentration is proportional to the latency time to combustion and the incidence of surgical fires that are detected. We examined latency time and number of events, utilizing the VanCleave et al model of intraoral fire ignition under 60, 80, and 100% oxygen concentration and flow rates of 4 and 10 L/min. Results demonstrated that ambient oxygen concentration and flow rate correlated positively to the initiation of combustion. The number of combustion events with 60% oxygen was significantly lower than with both 80% ( p = .0168) and 100% ( p = .002). Likewise, the number of events with 80% oxygen was significantly lower than with 100% oxygen ( p = .0019). Flow rate has a significant effect on the time to the first event ( p = .0002), time to first audible pop ( p = .0039), and time to first flash or fire ( p < .0001). No combustion occurred at oxygen concentrations less than 60% or flows less than 4 L/min. We conclude that latency time to combustion is directly proportional to ambient oxygen concentration and flow rate. Minimum oxygen concentration and flow rate were identified in our model. Further research is indicated to determine the minimal clinical oxygen concentration and flow rate needed to support combustion of an intraoral fire in a patient.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Pediatric Dental Resident, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Riley Hospital for Children/Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis, Indiana.

    ,

    Adjunct Clinical Associate Professor, Department of Oral Pathology, Medicine and Radiology, Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis, Indiana.

    ,

    Starkey Research Professor and Chair, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Riley Hospital for Children/Indiana University School of Dentistry, and Adjunct Clinical Professor of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana.

    ,

    Professor Emeritus, Purdue University, Grand Rapids, Michigan.

    ,

    Associate Professor of Pediatric Dentistry, Riley Hospital for Children/Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis, Indiana.

    Program Director and Professor, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Riley Hospital for Children/Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis, Indiana.

    Source

    MeSH

    Fires
    Humans
    Models, Theoretical
    Operating Rooms
    Oxygen
    Spontaneous Combustion
    Time Factors

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    29509520

    Citation

    TY - JOUR T1 - The Effects of Different Levels of Ambient Oxygen in an Oxygen-Enriched Surgical Environment and Production of Surgical Fires. AU - Davis,Leah B, AU - Saxen,Mark A, AU - Jones,James E, AU - McGlothlin,James D, AU - Yepes,Juan F, AU - Sanders,Brian J, PY - 2018/3/7/entrez PY - 2018/3/7/pubmed PY - 2018/10/20/medline KW - Latency time to combustion KW - Levels of oxygen-enriched environments KW - Surgical fires SP - 3 EP - 8 JF - Anesthesia progress JO - Anesth Prog VL - 65 IS - 1 N2 - Surgical fires require an oxygen-enriched environment, a flammable substrate, and an ignition source. We hypothesized ambient oxygen concentration is proportional to the latency time to combustion and the incidence of surgical fires that are detected. We examined latency time and number of events, utilizing the VanCleave et al model of intraoral fire ignition under 60, 80, and 100% oxygen concentration and flow rates of 4 and 10 L/min. Results demonstrated that ambient oxygen concentration and flow rate correlated positively to the initiation of combustion. The number of combustion events with 60% oxygen was significantly lower than with both 80% ( p = .0168) and 100% ( p = .002). Likewise, the number of events with 80% oxygen was significantly lower than with 100% oxygen ( p = .0019). Flow rate has a significant effect on the time to the first event ( p = .0002), time to first audible pop ( p = .0039), and time to first flash or fire ( p < .0001). No combustion occurred at oxygen concentrations less than 60% or flows less than 4 L/min. We conclude that latency time to combustion is directly proportional to ambient oxygen concentration and flow rate. Minimum oxygen concentration and flow rate were identified in our model. Further research is indicated to determine the minimal clinical oxygen concentration and flow rate needed to support combustion of an intraoral fire in a patient. SN - 1878-7177 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29509520/The_Effects_of_Different_Levels_of_Ambient_Oxygen_in_an_Oxygen-Enriched_Surgical_Environment_and_Production_of_Surgical_Fires. L2 - http://www.anesthesiaprogress.org/doi/10.2344/anpr-64-04-12?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&amp;rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&amp;rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed ER -