Evaluation of Malaria Urban Risk Using an Immuno-Epidemiological Biomarker of Human Exposure to Anopheles Bites.Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2018 05; 98(5):1353-1359.AJ
Urban malaria is an underestimated serious health concern in African countries. This study aimed to evaluate the risk of malaria transmission in an urban area by evaluating the level of human exposure to Anopheles bites using an Anopheles salivary biomarker (gambiae Salivary Gland Protein-6 peptide 1 [gSG6-P1] peptide). Two multidisciplinary cross-sectional studies were undertaken in five sites of Bouaké city (three urban districts and two surrounding villages, used as control; Côte d'Ivoire) during the rainy season and the dry season. Blood samples were obtained from children 6 months to 14 years of age for immunological tests. The level of anti-gSG6-P1 immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies was significantly higher in the rainy season than the dry season in both urban and rural sites (P < 0.0001). Interestingly, children with the highest anti-gSG6-P1 IgG responses in the rainy season were infected by Plasmodium falciparum. Surprisingly, no difference of anti-gSG6-P1 IgG level was observed between urban and rural areas, for either season. The current data suggest that children in the urban city of Bouaké could be as highly exposed to Anopheles bites as children living in surrounding villages. The immunological biomarker of human exposure to Anopheles bites may be used to accurately assess the potential risk of malaria transmission in African urban settings.