Baseline glucose homeostasis predicts the new onset of diabetes during statin therapy: A retrospective study in real life.Hormones (Athens) 2017; 16(4):396-404H
We evaluated the risk of altered glucose levels and new-onset diabetes (NOD) associated with statins according to glucose levels at baseline in a population treated for dyslipidemia on primary prevention for >5 years.
The retrospective study included 308 subjects (265 on statins and 43 controls on diet) with a follow-up of 5-15 years. The cohort was classified according to glucose tolerance at both baseline and follow-up.
The cumulative incidence of NOD was 13.6% (9.3% in controls and 13.5% in treated patients). NOD was diagnosed after 3.4±1.8 years. In the group with normal glucose levels at baseline, a family history of diabetes (OR: 3.4, 95% CI 1.3-8.9), BMI >30 kg/m2 (OR: 8.5, 95% CI 2.0-35.8), treatment with thiazide (OR: 21.9, 95% CI 1.2-384.2) and no alcohol consumption (OR: 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.8) reduced the risk of developing altered glucose levels or NOD. No effects of statins were seen. In the group with altered glucose levels at baseline, hypertension (OR: 5.0, 95% CI 1.0-25.3) and hypertriglyceridemia (OR: 3.5, 95% CI 1.0-11.8) increased the risk of remaining with altered glucose levels or developing NOD. Treatment with statins (OR: 7.5, 95% CI 1.5-37.4), in particular atorvastatin, was associated with an increased risk. In the whole population, statin therapy (OR: 4.0, 95% CI 1.1-14.1, p<0.020), and in particular simvastatin and atorvastatin, was associated with increased risk of altered glucose levels or NOD. Patients who developed or maintained altered glucose levels or NOD had a poor metabolic phenotype at baseline.
Statins were associated with an increased risk of NOD or altered glucose levels, mainly in subjects with altered glucose levels before the beginning of therapy. Poor metabolic phenotype and unhealthy behaviors or family history of diabetes contributed to that risk.