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Innate Immunity against Cryptococcus, from Recognition to Elimination.
J Fungi (Basel). 2018 Mar 07; 4(1)JF

Abstract

Cryptococcus species, the etiological agents of cryptococcosis, are encapsulated fungal yeasts that predominantly cause disease in immunocompromised individuals, and are responsible for 15% of AIDS-related deaths worldwide. Exposure follows the inhalation of the yeast into the lung alveoli, making it incumbent upon the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of pulmonary phagocytes to recognize highly conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS) of fungi. The main challenges impeding the ability of pulmonary phagocytes to effectively recognize Cryptococcus include the presence of the yeast's large polysaccharide capsule, as well as other cryptococcal virulence factors that mask fungal PAMPs and help Cryptococcus evade detection and subsequent activation of the immune system. This review will highlight key phagocyte cell populations and the arsenal of PRRs present on these cells, such as the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), C-type lectin receptors, NOD-like receptors (NLRs), and soluble receptors. Additionally, we will highlight critical cryptococcal PAMPs involved in the recognition of Cryptococcus. The question remains as to which PRR-ligand interaction is necessary for the recognition, phagocytosis, and subsequent killing of Cryptococcus.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Biology, The University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78249, USA. althea.campuzano@my.utsa.edu. South Texas Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases, The University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78249, USA. althea.campuzano@my.utsa.edu.Department of Biology, The University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78249, USA. floyd.wormley@utsa.edu. South Texas Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases, The University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78249, USA. floyd.wormley@utsa.edu.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29518906

Citation

Campuzano, Althea, and Floyd L. Wormley. "Innate Immunity Against Cryptococcus, From Recognition to Elimination." Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland), vol. 4, no. 1, 2018.
Campuzano A, Wormley FL. Innate Immunity against Cryptococcus, from Recognition to Elimination. J Fungi (Basel). 2018;4(1).
Campuzano, A., & Wormley, F. L. (2018). Innate Immunity against Cryptococcus, from Recognition to Elimination. Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 4(1). https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4010033
Campuzano A, Wormley FL. Innate Immunity Against Cryptococcus, From Recognition to Elimination. J Fungi (Basel). 2018 Mar 7;4(1) PubMed PMID: 29518906.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Innate Immunity against Cryptococcus, from Recognition to Elimination. AU - Campuzano,Althea, AU - Wormley,Floyd L, Y1 - 2018/03/07/ PY - 2018/02/20/received PY - 2018/03/02/revised PY - 2018/03/04/accepted PY - 2018/3/10/entrez PY - 2018/3/10/pubmed PY - 2018/3/10/medline KW - C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) KW - Cryptococcus deneoformans KW - Cryptococcus gattii KW - Cryptococcus neoformans KW - NOD-like receptors (NLRs) KW - Toll-like receptors (TLRs) KW - host–pathogen interactions KW - innate immune response KW - pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) KW - pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) JF - Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland) JO - J Fungi (Basel) VL - 4 IS - 1 N2 - Cryptococcus species, the etiological agents of cryptococcosis, are encapsulated fungal yeasts that predominantly cause disease in immunocompromised individuals, and are responsible for 15% of AIDS-related deaths worldwide. Exposure follows the inhalation of the yeast into the lung alveoli, making it incumbent upon the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of pulmonary phagocytes to recognize highly conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS) of fungi. The main challenges impeding the ability of pulmonary phagocytes to effectively recognize Cryptococcus include the presence of the yeast's large polysaccharide capsule, as well as other cryptococcal virulence factors that mask fungal PAMPs and help Cryptococcus evade detection and subsequent activation of the immune system. This review will highlight key phagocyte cell populations and the arsenal of PRRs present on these cells, such as the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), C-type lectin receptors, NOD-like receptors (NLRs), and soluble receptors. Additionally, we will highlight critical cryptococcal PAMPs involved in the recognition of Cryptococcus. The question remains as to which PRR-ligand interaction is necessary for the recognition, phagocytosis, and subsequent killing of Cryptococcus. SN - 2309-608X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29518906/Innate_Immunity_against_Cryptococcus_from_Recognition_to_Elimination_ L2 - http://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=jof4010033 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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