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Non-pumping reactive wells filled with mixing nano and micro zero-valent iron for nitrate removal from groundwater: Vertical, horizontal, and slanted wells.
J Contam Hydrol. 2018 03; 210:50-64.JC

Abstract

Non-pumping reactive wells (NPRWs) filled by zero-valent iron (ZVI) can be utilized for the remediation of groundwater contamination of deep aquifers. The efficiency of NPRWs mainly depends on the hydraulic contact time (HCT) of the pollutant with the reactive materials, the extent of the well capture zone (Wcz), and the relative hydraulic conductivity of aquifer and reactive material (Kr). We investigated nitrate removal from groundwater using NPRWs filled by ZVI (in nano and micro scales) and examined the effect of NPRWs orientations (i.e. vertical, slanted, and horizontal) on HCT and Wcz. The dependence of HCT on Wcz for different Kr values was derived theoretically for a homogeneous and isotropic aquifer, and verified using particle tracking simulations performed using the semi-analytical particle tracking and pathlines model (PMPATH). Nine batch experiments were then performed to investigate the impact of mixed nano-ZVI, NZVI (0 to 2 g l-1) and micro-ZVI, MZVI (0 to 4 g l-1) on the nitrate removal rate (with initial [Formula: see text] =132 mg l-1). The NPRWs system was tested in a bench-scale sand medium (60 cm length × 40 cm width × 25 cm height) for three orientations of NPRWs (vertical, horizontal, and slanted with inclination angle of 45°). A mixture of nano/micro ZVI, was used, applying constant conditions of pore water velocity (0.024 mm s-1) and initial nitrate concentration (128 mg l-1) for five pore volumes. The results of the batch tests showed that mixing nano and micro Fe0 outperforms these individual materials in nitrate removal rates. The final products of nitrate degradation in both batch and bench-scale experiments were [Formula: see text] , [Formula: see text] , and N2(gas). The results of sand-box experiments indicated that the slanted NPRWs have a higher nitrate reduction rate (57%) in comparison with vertical (38%) and horizontal (41%) configurations. The results also demonstrated that three factors have pivotal roles in expected HCT and Wcz, namely the contrast between the hydraulic conductivity of aquifer and reactive materials within the wells, the mass of Fe0 in the NPRWs, and the orientation of NPRWs adopted. A trade-off between these factors should be considered to increase the efficiency of remediation using the NPRWs system.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Physical Geography Department, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14155-6465, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address: smhosseini@ut.ac.ir.Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell'Ambiente, del Territorio e delle Infrastrutture, Politecnico di Torino, Torino, Italy.Department of Civil Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9313, Tehran, Iran; National Centre for Groundwater Research & Training, College of Science & Engineering, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001, Australia.National Centre for Groundwater Research & Training, College of Science & Engineering, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001, Australia.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29519731

Citation

Hosseini, Seiyed Mossa, et al. "Non-pumping Reactive Wells Filled With Mixing Nano and Micro Zero-valent Iron for Nitrate Removal From Groundwater: Vertical, Horizontal, and Slanted Wells." Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, vol. 210, 2018, pp. 50-64.
Hosseini SM, Tosco T, Ataie-Ashtiani B, et al. Non-pumping reactive wells filled with mixing nano and micro zero-valent iron for nitrate removal from groundwater: Vertical, horizontal, and slanted wells. J Contam Hydrol. 2018;210:50-64.
Hosseini, S. M., Tosco, T., Ataie-Ashtiani, B., & Simmons, C. T. (2018). Non-pumping reactive wells filled with mixing nano and micro zero-valent iron for nitrate removal from groundwater: Vertical, horizontal, and slanted wells. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 210, 50-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jconhyd.2018.02.006
Hosseini SM, et al. Non-pumping Reactive Wells Filled With Mixing Nano and Micro Zero-valent Iron for Nitrate Removal From Groundwater: Vertical, Horizontal, and Slanted Wells. J Contam Hydrol. 2018;210:50-64. PubMed PMID: 29519731.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Non-pumping reactive wells filled with mixing nano and micro zero-valent iron for nitrate removal from groundwater: Vertical, horizontal, and slanted wells. AU - Hosseini,Seiyed Mossa, AU - Tosco,Tiziana, AU - Ataie-Ashtiani,Behzad, AU - Simmons,Craig T, Y1 - 2018/02/27/ PY - 2017/10/10/received PY - 2018/02/12/revised PY - 2018/02/25/accepted PY - 2018/3/10/pubmed PY - 2019/2/15/medline PY - 2018/3/10/entrez KW - Capture zone of well KW - Groundwater remediation KW - Nano and micro zero-valent iron KW - Nitrate reduction KW - Non-pumping reactive wells KW - Slanted well SP - 50 EP - 64 JF - Journal of contaminant hydrology JO - J. Contam. Hydrol. VL - 210 N2 - Non-pumping reactive wells (NPRWs) filled by zero-valent iron (ZVI) can be utilized for the remediation of groundwater contamination of deep aquifers. The efficiency of NPRWs mainly depends on the hydraulic contact time (HCT) of the pollutant with the reactive materials, the extent of the well capture zone (Wcz), and the relative hydraulic conductivity of aquifer and reactive material (Kr). We investigated nitrate removal from groundwater using NPRWs filled by ZVI (in nano and micro scales) and examined the effect of NPRWs orientations (i.e. vertical, slanted, and horizontal) on HCT and Wcz. The dependence of HCT on Wcz for different Kr values was derived theoretically for a homogeneous and isotropic aquifer, and verified using particle tracking simulations performed using the semi-analytical particle tracking and pathlines model (PMPATH). Nine batch experiments were then performed to investigate the impact of mixed nano-ZVI, NZVI (0 to 2 g l-1) and micro-ZVI, MZVI (0 to 4 g l-1) on the nitrate removal rate (with initial [Formula: see text] =132 mg l-1). The NPRWs system was tested in a bench-scale sand medium (60 cm length × 40 cm width × 25 cm height) for three orientations of NPRWs (vertical, horizontal, and slanted with inclination angle of 45°). A mixture of nano/micro ZVI, was used, applying constant conditions of pore water velocity (0.024 mm s-1) and initial nitrate concentration (128 mg l-1) for five pore volumes. The results of the batch tests showed that mixing nano and micro Fe0 outperforms these individual materials in nitrate removal rates. The final products of nitrate degradation in both batch and bench-scale experiments were [Formula: see text] , [Formula: see text] , and N2(gas). The results of sand-box experiments indicated that the slanted NPRWs have a higher nitrate reduction rate (57%) in comparison with vertical (38%) and horizontal (41%) configurations. The results also demonstrated that three factors have pivotal roles in expected HCT and Wcz, namely the contrast between the hydraulic conductivity of aquifer and reactive materials within the wells, the mass of Fe0 in the NPRWs, and the orientation of NPRWs adopted. A trade-off between these factors should be considered to increase the efficiency of remediation using the NPRWs system. SN - 1873-6009 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29519731/Non_pumping_reactive_wells_filled_with_mixing_nano_and_micro_zero_valent_iron_for_nitrate_removal_from_groundwater:_Vertical_horizontal_and_slanted_wells_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0169-7722(17)30314-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -