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Intake of dietary saturated fatty acids and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands cohort: associations by types, sources of fatty acids and substitution by macronutrients.
Eur J Nutr 2019; 58(3):1125-1136EJ

Abstract

PURPOSE

The association between dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the association between SFA intake and T2D risk based on (1) individual SFA (differing in carbon chain length), (2) food sources of SFA and (3) the substituting macronutrients.

METHODS

37,421 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands (EPIC-NL) cohort were included in this study. Baseline dietary intake was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire. T2D risks were estimated by Cox regression models adjusted for non-dietary and dietary covariates.

RESULTS

893 incident T2D cases were documented during 10.1-year follow-up. We observed no association between total SFA and T2D risk. Marginally inverse associations were found for lauric acid (HR per 1 SD of energy%, 95% CI 0.92, 0.85-0.99), myristic acid (0.89, 0.79-0.99), margaric acid (0.84, 0.73-0.97), odd-chain SFA (pentadecylic plus margaric acids; 0.88, 0.79-0.99), and cheese derived SFA (0.90, 0.83-0.98). Soft and liquid fats derived SFA was found related to higher T2D risk (1.08, 1.01-1.17). When substituting SFA by proteins, carbohydrates and polyunsaturated fatty acids, significantly higher risks of T2D were observed (HRs per 1 energy% ranging from 1.05 to 1.15).

CONCLUSION

In this Dutch population, total SFA does not relate to T2D risk. Rather, the association may depend on the types and food sources of SFA. Cheese-derived SFA and individual SFA that are commonly found in cheese, were significantly related to lower T2D risks. We cannot exclude the higher T2D risks found for soft and liquid fats derived SFA and for substituting SFA with other macronutrients are influenced by residual confounding by trans fatty acids or limited intake variation in polyunsaturated fatty acids and vegetable protein.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, PO Box 85500, STR6.131, 3508 GA, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, PO Box 85500, STR6.131, 3508 GA, Utrecht, The Netherlands.Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands. Department of Medical and Clinical Psychology, Center of Research on Psychology in Somatic Disease (CORPS), Tilburg University, Tilburg, The Netherlands.Centre for Nutrition, Prevention and Health Services, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands.Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, PO Box 85500, STR6.131, 3508 GA, Utrecht, The Netherlands. i.sluijs-2@umcutrecht.nl.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29524001

Citation

Liu, Shengxin, et al. "Intake of Dietary Saturated Fatty Acids and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands Cohort: Associations By Types, Sources of Fatty Acids and Substitution By Macronutrients." European Journal of Nutrition, vol. 58, no. 3, 2019, pp. 1125-1136.
Liu S, van der Schouw YT, Soedamah-Muthu SS, et al. Intake of dietary saturated fatty acids and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands cohort: associations by types, sources of fatty acids and substitution by macronutrients. Eur J Nutr. 2019;58(3):1125-1136.
Liu, S., van der Schouw, Y. T., Soedamah-Muthu, S. S., Spijkerman, A. M. W., & Sluijs, I. (2019). Intake of dietary saturated fatty acids and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands cohort: associations by types, sources of fatty acids and substitution by macronutrients. European Journal of Nutrition, 58(3), pp. 1125-1136. doi:10.1007/s00394-018-1630-4.
Liu S, et al. Intake of Dietary Saturated Fatty Acids and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands Cohort: Associations By Types, Sources of Fatty Acids and Substitution By Macronutrients. Eur J Nutr. 2019;58(3):1125-1136. PubMed PMID: 29524001.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Intake of dietary saturated fatty acids and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands cohort: associations by types, sources of fatty acids and substitution by macronutrients. AU - Liu,Shengxin, AU - van der Schouw,Yvonne T, AU - Soedamah-Muthu,Sabita S, AU - Spijkerman,Annemieke M W, AU - Sluijs,Ivonne, Y1 - 2018/03/09/ PY - 2017/08/25/received PY - 2018/01/29/accepted PY - 2018/3/11/pubmed PY - 2019/12/20/medline PY - 2018/3/11/entrez KW - Cohort study KW - Epidemiology KW - Nutrition KW - Saturated fatty acids KW - Type 2 diabetes SP - 1125 EP - 1136 JF - European journal of nutrition JO - Eur J Nutr VL - 58 IS - 3 N2 - PURPOSE: The association between dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the association between SFA intake and T2D risk based on (1) individual SFA (differing in carbon chain length), (2) food sources of SFA and (3) the substituting macronutrients. METHODS: 37,421 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands (EPIC-NL) cohort were included in this study. Baseline dietary intake was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire. T2D risks were estimated by Cox regression models adjusted for non-dietary and dietary covariates. RESULTS: 893 incident T2D cases were documented during 10.1-year follow-up. We observed no association between total SFA and T2D risk. Marginally inverse associations were found for lauric acid (HR per 1 SD of energy%, 95% CI 0.92, 0.85-0.99), myristic acid (0.89, 0.79-0.99), margaric acid (0.84, 0.73-0.97), odd-chain SFA (pentadecylic plus margaric acids; 0.88, 0.79-0.99), and cheese derived SFA (0.90, 0.83-0.98). Soft and liquid fats derived SFA was found related to higher T2D risk (1.08, 1.01-1.17). When substituting SFA by proteins, carbohydrates and polyunsaturated fatty acids, significantly higher risks of T2D were observed (HRs per 1 energy% ranging from 1.05 to 1.15). CONCLUSION: In this Dutch population, total SFA does not relate to T2D risk. Rather, the association may depend on the types and food sources of SFA. Cheese-derived SFA and individual SFA that are commonly found in cheese, were significantly related to lower T2D risks. We cannot exclude the higher T2D risks found for soft and liquid fats derived SFA and for substituting SFA with other macronutrients are influenced by residual confounding by trans fatty acids or limited intake variation in polyunsaturated fatty acids and vegetable protein. SN - 1436-6215 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29524001/Intake_of_dietary_saturated_fatty_acids_and_risk_of_type_2_diabetes_in_the_European_Prospective_Investigation_into_Cancer_and_Nutrition_Netherlands_cohort:_associations_by_types_sources_of_fatty_acids_and_substitution_by_macronutrients_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-018-1630-4 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -