Short-term and midterm survival of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms in the contemporary endovascular era.J Vasc Surg. 2018 08; 68(2):408-414.e1.JV
Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has been shown to reduce mortality in the emergent repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). However, long-term survival data for this group of patients are lacking with contemporary endovascular endografts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate both 30-day mortality rates and 1-year survival in patients undergoing emergent EVAR in a 43-facility hospital system with a quaternary referral center with an established ruptured aneurysm protocol.
Retrospective analysis of patients captured prospectively in an Institutional Review Board-approved registry for patients treated emergently for AAA were reviewed between 2012 and 2017 was conducted. Primary outcome measures were 30-day mortality and 1-year survival for the entire group as well as for symptomatic and ruptured aneurysms. Data were analyzed using logistic regression survival curves, and a log-rank test was performed to compare survival between open and endovascular repair. Patients were evaluated on an intent-to-treat basis, and outcomes were evaluated in a multivariate model.
A total of 249 patients were referred as part of the protocol. Of these, 102 (41%) were treated emergently. Kaplan-Meier estimates of 30-day and 1-year survival were 64% and 53% for all patients, 58% and 46% for ruptured patients, and 86% and 81% for symptomatic patients. EVAR resulted in improved 30-day survival (64% vs 31%; odds ratio, 4.0; P = .03) and 1-year survival (40% vs 23%; odds ratio, 2.3; P = .4) over open repair. Significant predictors for 30-day mortality included hypotension (P = .0003), blood transfusion (P < .0001), length of stay (P = .0005), extravasation (P = .01), preoperative cardiopulmonary resuscitation (P = .04), open repair (P = .007), aortouni-iliac reconstruction (P = .008), and abdominal compartment syndrome (P = .007). Significant predictors for 1-year mortality included advanced age (P = .04), hypotension (P = .01), blood transfusion (P = .006), extravasation (P = .03), reintubation (P = .03), and abdominal compartment syndrome (P = .03). There were no differences in outcomes based on race, gender, or outside transfer. Peripheral arterial disease (P = .04), hypertension (P = .04), coronary artery disease (P = .03), and familial history of aneurysms (P = .05) were related to increased 30-day mortality. Peripheral arterial disease (P = .06) and coronary artery disease (P = .07) were nearly significant, with increased 1-year mortality.
EVAR is associated with improved survival compared with open repair in patients requiring emergent AAA repair. However, in the first year, there is a significant risk of death based on initial presentation as well as underlying comorbidities. To improve long-term survival, aggressive medical management and medical surveillance are warranted.