Prospective study of flavonoid intake and risk of primary open-angle glaucoma.Acta Ophthalmol 2018; 96(6):e692-e700AO
To evaluate the association between flavonoid intake and incident primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG).
We followed 65 516 women from the Nurses' Health Study (from 1984) and 42 156 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (from 1986) biennially to 2012, who were 40+ years old, free of POAG, and reported eye examinations. Dietary flavonoid intake was assessed with validated repeated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires. Incident POAG cases (n = 1575) were confirmed with medical record review. Cohort-specific multivariable-adjusted relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and meta-analysed.
Total flavonoid intake was not associated with risk of POAG development [RR for highest (Q5: median ~645 mg/day) versus lowest quintile (Q1: ~130 mg/day) = 0.91 (95% CI = 0.77, 1.08); p for trend (p-trend) = 0.19]; the flavonoid subclasses of flavones, flavanones, polymeric flavanols or anthocyanidins were also not associated (Q5 versus Q1 comparison p-values ≥0.05 and p-trend ≥0.09). Higher intakes of flavonols and monomeric flavanols were nominally associated with lower POAG risk, based on the Q5 versus Q1 comparisons or p-trends. The Q5 versus Q1 comparison RRs were: for flavonols, 0.82 (95% CI = 0.69, 0.97; p-trend = 0.05; ~28 versus ~8 mg/day), and for monomeric flavanols, 0.86 (95% CI = 0.72, 1.02; p-trend=0.04; ~110 versus 10 mg/day). The food/beverage that contributed most to both the variation of flavonols and monomeric flavanols was tea; consuming ~2 cups/day was associated with 18% lower POAG risk (RR=0.82; 95% CI = 0.68, 0.99; p-trend = 0.02).
Total flavonoid intake was not associated with POAG risk. Greater intakes of flavonols and monomeric flavanols and of tea showed suggestive modest associations with lower risk; these results need confirmation.