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Psychosocial correlates of gap time to anabolic-androgenic steroid use.
Int J Eat Disord. 2018 06; 51(6):535-541.IJ

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Theoretically, legal supplement use precedes and increases the risk for illicit appearance and performance enhancing drug (APED) use-also referred to as the gateway hypothesis. Little is known about associations between the speed of progression, or gap time, from legal to illicit APED use, and psychological risk factors, such as sociocultural influence, eating disorders, body image disturbance, and impulsivity.

METHOD

The sample taken from two studies included 172 active steroid users (n = 143) and intense-exercising healthy controls (n = 29) between the ages of 18 and 60 (M = 34.16, SD = 10.43), the majority of whom were male (91.9%). Participants, retrospectively, reported APED use and completed measures assessing psychological and behavioral factors, including eating concern, muscle dysmorphia, and impulsivity. Participants had a gap time from initial APED use to anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use that ranged from 0 to 38 years.

RESULTS

Continuous survival analysis indicated that interactions between self- versus other sociocultural influence on APED onset and both higher eating concern and impulsivity are associated with a shorter gap time from initial legal to illicit APED use.

DISCUSSION

The results indicate the potential value in developing different strategies for individuals with other sociocultural versus self-influence on illicit APED use, and among more impulsive and eating-concerned APED users. Future research is needed to assess different trajectories of APED use, such that eating-concerned and impulsive individuals who perceive less other sociocultural influence may be at greatest risk for a speedier progression to AAS use.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York.Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29542171

Citation

Klimek, Patrycja, and Tom Hildebrandt. "Psychosocial Correlates of Gap Time to Anabolic-androgenic Steroid Use." The International Journal of Eating Disorders, vol. 51, no. 6, 2018, pp. 535-541.
Klimek P, Hildebrandt T. Psychosocial correlates of gap time to anabolic-androgenic steroid use. Int J Eat Disord. 2018;51(6):535-541.
Klimek, P., & Hildebrandt, T. (2018). Psychosocial correlates of gap time to anabolic-androgenic steroid use. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 51(6), 535-541. https://doi.org/10.1002/eat.22859
Klimek P, Hildebrandt T. Psychosocial Correlates of Gap Time to Anabolic-androgenic Steroid Use. Int J Eat Disord. 2018;51(6):535-541. PubMed PMID: 29542171.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Psychosocial correlates of gap time to anabolic-androgenic steroid use. AU - Klimek,Patrycja, AU - Hildebrandt,Tom, Y1 - 2018/03/15/ PY - 2017/09/09/received PY - 2018/02/24/revised PY - 2018/02/27/accepted PY - 2018/3/16/pubmed PY - 2019/3/21/medline PY - 2018/3/16/entrez KW - eating concern KW - gap time KW - impulsivity KW - sociocultural influence KW - steroids SP - 535 EP - 541 JF - The International journal of eating disorders JO - Int J Eat Disord VL - 51 IS - 6 N2 - OBJECTIVE: Theoretically, legal supplement use precedes and increases the risk for illicit appearance and performance enhancing drug (APED) use-also referred to as the gateway hypothesis. Little is known about associations between the speed of progression, or gap time, from legal to illicit APED use, and psychological risk factors, such as sociocultural influence, eating disorders, body image disturbance, and impulsivity. METHOD: The sample taken from two studies included 172 active steroid users (n = 143) and intense-exercising healthy controls (n = 29) between the ages of 18 and 60 (M = 34.16, SD = 10.43), the majority of whom were male (91.9%). Participants, retrospectively, reported APED use and completed measures assessing psychological and behavioral factors, including eating concern, muscle dysmorphia, and impulsivity. Participants had a gap time from initial APED use to anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use that ranged from 0 to 38 years. RESULTS: Continuous survival analysis indicated that interactions between self- versus other sociocultural influence on APED onset and both higher eating concern and impulsivity are associated with a shorter gap time from initial legal to illicit APED use. DISCUSSION: The results indicate the potential value in developing different strategies for individuals with other sociocultural versus self-influence on illicit APED use, and among more impulsive and eating-concerned APED users. Future research is needed to assess different trajectories of APED use, such that eating-concerned and impulsive individuals who perceive less other sociocultural influence may be at greatest risk for a speedier progression to AAS use. SN - 1098-108X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29542171/Psychosocial_correlates_of_gap_time_to_anabolic-androgenic_steroid_use L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/eat.22859 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -