Gout: state of the art after a decade of developments.Rheumatology (Oxford). 2019 01 01; 58(1):27-44.R
This review article summarizes the relevant English literature on gout from 2010 through April 2017. It emphasizes that the current epidemiology of gout indicates a rising prevalence worldwide, not only in Western countries but also in Southeast Asia, in close relationship with the obesity and metabolic syndrome epidemics. New pathogenic mechanisms of chronic hyperuricaemia focus on the gut (microbiota, ABCG2 expression) after the kidney. Cardiovascular and renal comorbidities are the key points to consider in terms of management. New imaging tools are available, including US with key features and dual-energy CT rendering it able to reveal deposits of urate crystals. These deposits are now included in new diagnostic and classification criteria. Overall, half of the patients with gout are readily treated with allopurinol, the recommended xanthine oxidase inhibitor (XOI), with prophylaxis for flares with low-dose daily colchicine. The main management issues are related to patient adherence, because gout patients have the lowest rate of medication possession ratio at 1 year, but they also include clinical inertia by physicians, meaning XOI dosage is not titrated according to regular serum uric acid level measurements for targeting serum uric acid levels for uncomplicated (6.0 mg/dl) and complicated gout, or the British Society for Rheumatology recommended target (5.0 mg/dl). Difficult-to-treat gout encompasses polyarticular flares, and mostly patients with comorbidities, renal or heart failure, leading to contraindications or side effects of standard-of-care drugs (colchicine, NSAIDs, oral steroids) for flares; and tophaceous and/or destructive arthropathies, leading to switching between XOIs (febuxostat) or to combining XOI and uricosurics.