Causes of hyperhomocysteinemia and its pathological significance.Arch Pharm Res. 2018 Apr; 41(4):372-383.AP
In the last 10 years, homocysteine has been regarded as a marker of cardiovascular disease and a definite risk factor for many other diseases. Homocysteine is biosynthesized from methionine through multiple steps and then goes through one of two major metabolic pathways: remethylation and transsulfuration. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a state in which too much homocysteine is present in the body. The main cause of hyperhomocysteinemia is a dysfunction of enzymes and cofactors associated with the process of homocysteine biosynthesis. Other causes include excessive methionine intake, certain diseases and side effects of some drugs. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a trigger for many diseases, such as atherosclerosis, congestive heart failure, age-related macular degeneration, Alzheimer's disease and hearing loss. There are many studies showing a positive relationship between homocysteine level and various symptoms. We speculate that a high level of homocysteine can be the sole reason or an aggravating factor in numerous diseases for which causal links are not fully understood.