Differential Kinetics of Two-Cysteine Peroxiredoxin Disulfide Formation Reveal a Novel Model for Peroxide Sensing.Biochemistry. 2018 06 19; 57(24):3416-3424.B
Two-cysteine peroxiredoxins (Prx) have a three-step catalytic cycle consisting of (1) reduction of peroxide and formation of sulfenic acid on the enzyme, (2) condensation of the sulfenic acid with a thiol to form disulfide, also known as resolution, and (3) reduction of the disulfide by a reductant protein. By following changes in protein fluorescence, we have studied the pH dependence of reaction 2 in human peroxiredoxins 1, 2, and 5 and in Salmonella typhimurium AhpC and obtained rate constants for the reaction and p Ka values of the thiol and sulfenic acid involved for each system. The observed reaction 2 rate constant spans 2 orders of magnitude, but in all cases, reaction 2 appears to be slow compared to the same reaction in small-molecule systems, making clear the rates are limited by conformational features of the proteins. For each Prx, reaction 2 will become rate-limiting at some critical steady-state concentration of H2O2 producing the accumulation of Prx as sulfenic acid. When this happens, an alternative and faster-resolving Prx (or other peroxidase) may take over the antioxidant role. The accumulation of sulfenic acid Prx at distinct concentrations of H2O2 is embedded in the kinetic limitations of the catalytic cycle and may constitute the basis of a H2O2-mediated redox signal transduction pathway requiring neither inactivation nor posttranslational modification. The differences in the rate constants of resolution among Prx coexisting in the same compartment may partially explain their complementation in antioxidant function and stepwise sensing of H2O2 concentration.