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Acute Epiglottitis in the Immunocompromised Host: Case Report and Review of the Literature.
Open Forum Infect Dis. 2018 Mar; 5(3):ofy038.OF

Abstract

We present a case of acute epiglottitis in a 16-year-old with severe aplastic anemia. He was admitted with a history suggestive of a severe upper airway infection and an absolute neutrophil count of 0 per cubic millimeter. Despite his immunocompromised state, he presented with the classical signs and symptoms of epiglottitis. We review here the presentation and comorbidities of immunocompromised patients with epiglottitis. In addition, the appropriate choice of empirical antibiotic therapy is important for the management of epiglottitis in immunocompromised patients, especially in the post-Haemophilus influenza type B vaccination era. In our patient, Enterobacter cloacae was isolated from endoscopically directed throat cultures, and treatment was successful without the need for intubation. The current literature suggests that in immunocompromised patients, particularly those who are neutropenic, there is a potentially wide range of organisms, both bacterial and fungal, that may play a role in the pathology of acute epiglottitis.

Authors+Show Affiliations

University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.Fungal Pathogenesis Section, Laboratory of Clinical Immunology and Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.National Institute on Deafness and Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.Hematology Branch, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.Clinical Research Directorate/Clinical Monitoring Research Program, Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc., NCI Campus at Frederick, Frederick, Maryl.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29564363

Citation

Chen, Cheng, et al. "Acute Epiglottitis in the Immunocompromised Host: Case Report and Review of the Literature." Open Forum Infectious Diseases, vol. 5, no. 3, 2018, pp. ofy038.
Chen C, Natarajan M, Bianchi D, et al. Acute Epiglottitis in the Immunocompromised Host: Case Report and Review of the Literature. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2018;5(3):ofy038.
Chen, C., Natarajan, M., Bianchi, D., Aue, G., & Powers, J. H. (2018). Acute Epiglottitis in the Immunocompromised Host: Case Report and Review of the Literature. Open Forum Infectious Diseases, 5(3), ofy038. https://doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofy038
Chen C, et al. Acute Epiglottitis in the Immunocompromised Host: Case Report and Review of the Literature. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2018;5(3):ofy038. PubMed PMID: 29564363.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Acute Epiglottitis in the Immunocompromised Host: Case Report and Review of the Literature. AU - Chen,Cheng, AU - Natarajan,Mukil, AU - Bianchi,David, AU - Aue,Georg, AU - Powers,John H, Y1 - 2018/02/17/ PY - 2017/12/04/received PY - 2018/02/14/accepted PY - 2018/3/23/entrez PY - 2018/3/23/pubmed PY - 2018/3/23/medline KW - Enterobacter cloacae KW - aplastic anemia KW - epiglottitis KW - immunocompromise KW - malignancy KW - neutropenia SP - ofy038 EP - ofy038 JF - Open forum infectious diseases JO - Open Forum Infect Dis VL - 5 IS - 3 N2 - We present a case of acute epiglottitis in a 16-year-old with severe aplastic anemia. He was admitted with a history suggestive of a severe upper airway infection and an absolute neutrophil count of 0 per cubic millimeter. Despite his immunocompromised state, he presented with the classical signs and symptoms of epiglottitis. We review here the presentation and comorbidities of immunocompromised patients with epiglottitis. In addition, the appropriate choice of empirical antibiotic therapy is important for the management of epiglottitis in immunocompromised patients, especially in the post-Haemophilus influenza type B vaccination era. In our patient, Enterobacter cloacae was isolated from endoscopically directed throat cultures, and treatment was successful without the need for intubation. The current literature suggests that in immunocompromised patients, particularly those who are neutropenic, there is a potentially wide range of organisms, both bacterial and fungal, that may play a role in the pathology of acute epiglottitis. SN - 2328-8957 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29564363/Acute_Epiglottitis_in_the_Immunocompromised_Host:_Case_Report_and_Review_of_the_Literature_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ofid/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/ofid/ofy038 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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