Acute Epiglottitis in the Immunocompromised Host: Case Report and Review of the Literature.Open Forum Infect Dis. 2018 Mar; 5(3):ofy038.OF
We present a case of acute epiglottitis in a 16-year-old with severe aplastic anemia. He was admitted with a history suggestive of a severe upper airway infection and an absolute neutrophil count of 0 per cubic millimeter. Despite his immunocompromised state, he presented with the classical signs and symptoms of epiglottitis. We review here the presentation and comorbidities of immunocompromised patients with epiglottitis. In addition, the appropriate choice of empirical antibiotic therapy is important for the management of epiglottitis in immunocompromised patients, especially in the post-Haemophilus influenza type B vaccination era. In our patient, Enterobacter cloacae was isolated from endoscopically directed throat cultures, and treatment was successful without the need for intubation. The current literature suggests that in immunocompromised patients, particularly those who are neutropenic, there is a potentially wide range of organisms, both bacterial and fungal, that may play a role in the pathology of acute epiglottitis.