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Role of Inflammation in Diabetic Retinopathy.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Mar 22; 19(4)IJ

Abstract

Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication of diabetes and remains the leading cause of blindness among the working-age population. For decades, diabetic retinopathy was considered only a microvascular complication, but the retinal microvasculature is intimately associated with and governed by neurons and glia, which are affected even prior to clinically detectable vascular lesions. While progress has been made to improve the vascular alterations, there is still no treatment to counteract the early neuro-glial perturbations in diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes is a complex metabolic disorder, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia along with dyslipidemia, hypoinsulinemia and hypertension. Increasing evidence points to inflammation as one key player in diabetes-associated retinal perturbations, however, the exact underlying molecular mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Interlinked molecular pathways, such as oxidative stress, formation of advanced glycation end-products and increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor have received a lot of attention as they all contribute to the inflammatory response. In the current review, we focus on the involvement of inflammation in the pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy with special emphasis on the functional relationships between glial cells and neurons. Finally, we summarize recent advances using novel targets to inhibit inflammation in diabetic retinopathy.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA. aruebsam@med.umich.edu.Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA. soniapar@umich.edu.Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA. patricef@med.umich.edu. Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA. patricef@med.umich.edu.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29565290

Citation

Rübsam, Anne, et al. "Role of Inflammation in Diabetic Retinopathy." International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 19, no. 4, 2018.
Rübsam A, Parikh S, Fort PE. Role of Inflammation in Diabetic Retinopathy. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19(4).
Rübsam, A., Parikh, S., & Fort, P. E. (2018). Role of Inflammation in Diabetic Retinopathy. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 19(4). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19040942
Rübsam A, Parikh S, Fort PE. Role of Inflammation in Diabetic Retinopathy. Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Mar 22;19(4) PubMed PMID: 29565290.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Role of Inflammation in Diabetic Retinopathy. AU - Rübsam,Anne, AU - Parikh,Sonia, AU - Fort,Patrice E, Y1 - 2018/03/22/ PY - 2018/02/15/received PY - 2018/03/09/revised PY - 2018/03/17/accepted PY - 2018/3/23/entrez PY - 2018/3/23/pubmed PY - 2018/9/5/medline KW - Müller glial cells KW - astrocytes KW - crystallins KW - diabetic retinopathy KW - inflammation KW - microglia KW - neurodegeneration KW - neuroprotection KW - pathophysiology JF - International journal of molecular sciences JO - Int J Mol Sci VL - 19 IS - 4 N2 - Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication of diabetes and remains the leading cause of blindness among the working-age population. For decades, diabetic retinopathy was considered only a microvascular complication, but the retinal microvasculature is intimately associated with and governed by neurons and glia, which are affected even prior to clinically detectable vascular lesions. While progress has been made to improve the vascular alterations, there is still no treatment to counteract the early neuro-glial perturbations in diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes is a complex metabolic disorder, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia along with dyslipidemia, hypoinsulinemia and hypertension. Increasing evidence points to inflammation as one key player in diabetes-associated retinal perturbations, however, the exact underlying molecular mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Interlinked molecular pathways, such as oxidative stress, formation of advanced glycation end-products and increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor have received a lot of attention as they all contribute to the inflammatory response. In the current review, we focus on the involvement of inflammation in the pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy with special emphasis on the functional relationships between glial cells and neurons. Finally, we summarize recent advances using novel targets to inhibit inflammation in diabetic retinopathy. SN - 1422-0067 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29565290/Role_of_Inflammation_in_Diabetic_Retinopathy_ L2 - https://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=ijms19040942 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -