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Breastfeeding and complementary feeding in relation to body mass index and overweight at ages 7 and 11 y: a path analysis within the Danish National Birth Cohort.
Am J Clin Nutr 2018; 107(3):313-322AJ

Abstract

Background

Infant feeding may play an important role in the development of childhood overweight and obesity.

Objective

The objective of this study was to examine whether duration of breastfeeding (BF), timing of introduction of complementary food, and protein intake at age 18 mo are associated with body mass index [BMI (measured in kg/m2)] and overweight at ages 7 and 11 y, independent of BMI during infancy.

Design

Children participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort were followed up at ages 7 and 11 y. Information on infant feeding, protein intake at age 18 mo, Ponderal Index at birth, child BMI (at ages 5 mo, 12 mo, 7 y, and 11 y), and several parental factors was available. Path analysis was used to assess the direct and indirect effects of infant feeding on BMI z scores (BMIz) at ages 7 (n = 36,481) and 11 y (n = 22,047). Logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations with overweight.

Results

Duration of BF was not associated with childhood BMIz at ages 7 and 11 y. Earlier introduction of complementary food (<4 mo old) was not associated with BMIz at age 7 y, but with a 0.069 (95% CI: 0.021, 0.117, P = 0.005) higher BMIz at age 11 y and increased risk of overweight at age 11 y (OR 1.44; 95% CI: 1.04, 2.00; P = 0.03). Protein intake from dairy products (per 5 g/d) was associated with higher BMIz only at age 7 y (OR: 0.012; 95% CI: 0.003, 0.021; P = 0.007). Protein intake from meat and fish (per 2 g/d) was associated with a 0.010 (95% CI: 0.004, 0.017; P = 0.003) higher BMIz at age 7 y, a 0.013 (95% CI: 0.005, 0.020; P = 0.002) higher BMIz at age 11 y and increased odds of overweight at age 7 y (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.10; P < 0.001), but not at age 11 y.

Conclusions

Intake of protein from meat and fish at age 18 mo was associated with higher BMIz and risk of overweight in childhood. However, the effect sizes were small. Early introduction of complementary food may be associated with child BMIz and child overweight. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03334760.

Authors+Show Affiliations

National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark. Center for Clinical Research and Prevention, Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. Section of Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.Center for Clinical Research and Prevention, Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.Center for Clinical Research and Prevention, Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.Section of Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.Section of Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29566190

Citation

Morgen, Camilla Schmidt, et al. "Breastfeeding and Complementary Feeding in Relation to Body Mass Index and Overweight at Ages 7 and 11 Y: a Path Analysis Within the Danish National Birth Cohort." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 107, no. 3, 2018, pp. 313-322.
Morgen CS, Ängquist L, Baker JL, et al. Breastfeeding and complementary feeding in relation to body mass index and overweight at ages 7 and 11 y: a path analysis within the Danish National Birth Cohort. Am J Clin Nutr. 2018;107(3):313-322.
Morgen, C. S., Ängquist, L., Baker, J. L., Andersen, A. N., Sørensen, T. I. A., & Michaelsen, K. F. (2018). Breastfeeding and complementary feeding in relation to body mass index and overweight at ages 7 and 11 y: a path analysis within the Danish National Birth Cohort. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 107(3), pp. 313-322. doi:10.1093/ajcn/nqx058.
Morgen CS, et al. Breastfeeding and Complementary Feeding in Relation to Body Mass Index and Overweight at Ages 7 and 11 Y: a Path Analysis Within the Danish National Birth Cohort. Am J Clin Nutr. 2018 03 1;107(3):313-322. PubMed PMID: 29566190.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Breastfeeding and complementary feeding in relation to body mass index and overweight at ages 7 and 11 y: a path analysis within the Danish National Birth Cohort. AU - Morgen,Camilla Schmidt, AU - Ängquist,Lars, AU - Baker,Jennifer L, AU - Andersen,Anne-Marie Nybo, AU - Sørensen,Thorkild I A, AU - Michaelsen,Kim F, PY - 2016/12/29/received PY - 2017/12/06/accepted PY - 2018/3/23/entrez PY - 2018/3/23/pubmed PY - 2019/6/4/medline SP - 313 EP - 322 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 107 IS - 3 N2 - Background: Infant feeding may play an important role in the development of childhood overweight and obesity. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine whether duration of breastfeeding (BF), timing of introduction of complementary food, and protein intake at age 18 mo are associated with body mass index [BMI (measured in kg/m2)] and overweight at ages 7 and 11 y, independent of BMI during infancy. Design: Children participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort were followed up at ages 7 and 11 y. Information on infant feeding, protein intake at age 18 mo, Ponderal Index at birth, child BMI (at ages 5 mo, 12 mo, 7 y, and 11 y), and several parental factors was available. Path analysis was used to assess the direct and indirect effects of infant feeding on BMI z scores (BMIz) at ages 7 (n = 36,481) and 11 y (n = 22,047). Logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations with overweight. Results: Duration of BF was not associated with childhood BMIz at ages 7 and 11 y. Earlier introduction of complementary food (<4 mo old) was not associated with BMIz at age 7 y, but with a 0.069 (95% CI: 0.021, 0.117, P = 0.005) higher BMIz at age 11 y and increased risk of overweight at age 11 y (OR 1.44; 95% CI: 1.04, 2.00; P = 0.03). Protein intake from dairy products (per 5 g/d) was associated with higher BMIz only at age 7 y (OR: 0.012; 95% CI: 0.003, 0.021; P = 0.007). Protein intake from meat and fish (per 2 g/d) was associated with a 0.010 (95% CI: 0.004, 0.017; P = 0.003) higher BMIz at age 7 y, a 0.013 (95% CI: 0.005, 0.020; P = 0.002) higher BMIz at age 11 y and increased odds of overweight at age 7 y (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.10; P < 0.001), but not at age 11 y. Conclusions: Intake of protein from meat and fish at age 18 mo was associated with higher BMIz and risk of overweight in childhood. However, the effect sizes were small. Early introduction of complementary food may be associated with child BMIz and child overweight. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03334760. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29566190/Breastfeeding_and_complementary_feeding_in_relation_to_body_mass_index_and_overweight_at_ages_7_and_11_y:_a_path_analysis_within_the_Danish_National_Birth_Cohort_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/ajcn/nqx058 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -