Seed Polyphenolic Profile, Antioxidative Activity, and Fatty Acids Composition of Wild and Cultivated Carthamus Species.Chem Biodivers. 2018 Jun; 15(6):e1700562.CB
Total flavonoid content (TFC) and cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cyd-3-glu) of seed and seed coat extract of 16 genotypes from five species of Carthamus were studied, and their major polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of the seed coat extracts were determined using HPLC analysis and DPPH assay, respectively. Additionally, fatty acids composition of the seed oil was analyzed by GC. In general, TFC and Cyd-3-glu content of seed coat extracts were higher than those of seed extracts. A novel breeding line with black seed coat (named A82) depicted lower TFC (3.79 mg QUE/g DW) but higher Cyd-3-glu (24.64 mg/g DW) compared to the white and other seed-pigmented genotypes. DPPH radical scavenging activity showed a strong association with Cyd-3-glu content (r = 0.84), but no correlation with TFC (r = -0.32). HPLC analysis of seed coat extracts revealed that four compounds were dominant constituents including rutin (7.23 - 117.95 mg/100 g DW), apigenin (4.37 - 64.88 mg/100 g DW), quercetin (3.09 - 14.10 mg/100 g DW), and ferulic acid (4.49 - 30.41 mg/100 g DW). Interestingly, the genotype A82 with an appropriate polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids index (5.46%) and a moderate linoleic fatty acid content (64.70%) had higher nutritional and pharmaceutical value than all the other genotypes.