Anthocyanins as a potential pharmacological agent to manage memory deficit, oxidative stress and alterations in ion pump activity induced by experimental sporadic dementia of Alzheimer's type.J Nutr Biochem. 2018 06; 56:193-204.JN
Anthocyanins (ANT) are polyphenolic flavonoids with antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. This study evaluated the effect of ANT treatment on cognitive performance and neurochemical parameters in an experimental model of sporadic dementia of Alzheimer's type (SDAT). Adult male rats were divided into four groups: control (1 ml/kg saline, once daily, by gavage), ANT (200 mg/kg, once daily, by gavage), streptozotocin (STZ, 3 mg/kg) and STZ plus ANT. STZ was administered via bilateral intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection (5 μl). ANT were administered after ICV injection for 25 days. Cognitive deficits (short-term memory and spatial memory), oxidative stress parameters, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and Na+-K+-ATPase activity in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus were evaluated. ANT treatment protected against the worsening of memory in STZ-induced SDAT. STZ promoted an increase in AChE and Na+-K+-ATPase total and isoform activity in both structures; ANT restored this change. STZ administration induced an increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in the level of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), in the cerebral cortex; ANT significantly attenuated these effects. In the hippocampus, an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitrite and lipid peroxidation levels, and SOD activity and a decrease in CAT and GPx activity were seen after STZ injection. ANT protected against the changes in ROS and antioxidant enzyme levels. In conclusion, the present study showed that treatment with ANT attenuated memory deficits, protected against oxidative damage in the brain, and restored AChE and ion pump activity in an STZ-induced SDAT in rats.