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Geographic and socioeconomic diversity of food and nutrient intakes: a comparison of four European countries.
Eur J Nutr. 2019 Jun; 58(4):1475-1493.EJ

Abstract

PURPOSE

Public health policies and actions increasingly acknowledge the climate burden of food consumption. The aim of this study is to describe dietary intakes across four European countries, as baseline for further research towards healthier and environmentally-friendlier diets for Europe.

METHODS

Individual-level dietary intake data in adults were obtained from nationally-representative surveys from Denmark and France using a 7-day diet record, Italy using a 3-day diet record, and Czech Republic using two replicates of a 24-h recall. Energy-standardised food and nutrient intakes were calculated for each subject from the mean of two randomly selected days.

RESULTS

There was clear geographical variability, with a between-country range for mean fruit intake from 118 to 199 g/day, for vegetables from 95 to 239 g/day, for fish from 12 to 45 g/day, for dairy from 129 to 302 g/day, for sweet beverages from 48 to 224 ml/day, and for alcohol from 8 to 15 g/day, with higher intakes in Italy for fruit, vegetables and fish, and in Denmark for dairy, sweet beverages and alcohol. In all countries, intakes were low for legumes (< 20 g/day), and nuts and seeds (< 5 g/day), but high for red and processed meat (> 80 g/day). Within countries, food intakes also varied by socio-economic factors such as age, gender, and educational level, but less pronounced by anthropometric factors such as overweight status. For nutrients, intakes were low for dietary fibre (15.8-19.4 g/day) and vitamin D (2.4-3.0 µg/day) in all countries, for potassium (2288-2938 mg/day) and magnesium (268-285 mg/day) except in Denmark, for vitamin E in Denmark (6.7 mg/day), and for folate in Czech Republic (212 µg/day).

CONCLUSIONS

There is considerable variation in food and nutrient intakes across Europe, not only between, but also within countries. Individual-level dietary data provide insight into the heterogeneity of dietary habits beyond per capita food supply data, and this is crucial to balancing healthy and environmentally-friendly diets for European citizens.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, PO Box 8129, 6700 EV, Wageningen, The Netherlands. elly.mertens@wur.nl.Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, PO Box 8129, 6700 EV, Wageningen, The Netherlands.Center for Health, Nutrition and Food, National Institute of Public Health, Brno, Czech Republic.Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Research Centre for Food and Nutrition, Via Ardeatina 546, 00178, Rome, Italy.Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Research Centre for Food and Nutrition, Via Ardeatina 546, 00178, Rome, Italy.Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Research Centre for Food and Nutrition, Via Ardeatina 546, 00178, Rome, Italy.French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (Anses)/Risk Assessment Department (DER), 14 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 94701, Maisons-Alfort Cedex, France.French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (Anses)/Risk Assessment Department (DER), 14 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 94701, Maisons-Alfort Cedex, France.French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (Anses)/Risk Assessment Department (DER), 14 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 94701, Maisons-Alfort Cedex, France.Division of Risk Assessment and Nutrition, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Søborg, Denmark.Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, PO Box 8129, 6700 EV, Wageningen, The Netherlands.Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, PO Box 8129, 6700 EV, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29594476

Citation

Mertens, Elly, et al. "Geographic and Socioeconomic Diversity of Food and Nutrient Intakes: a Comparison of Four European Countries." European Journal of Nutrition, vol. 58, no. 4, 2019, pp. 1475-1493.
Mertens E, Kuijsten A, Dofková M, et al. Geographic and socioeconomic diversity of food and nutrient intakes: a comparison of four European countries. Eur J Nutr. 2019;58(4):1475-1493.
Mertens, E., Kuijsten, A., Dofková, M., Mistura, L., D'Addezio, L., Turrini, A., Dubuisson, C., Favret, S., Havard, S., Trolle, E., Van't Veer, P., & Geleijnse, J. M. (2019). Geographic and socioeconomic diversity of food and nutrient intakes: a comparison of four European countries. European Journal of Nutrition, 58(4), 1475-1493. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-018-1673-6
Mertens E, et al. Geographic and Socioeconomic Diversity of Food and Nutrient Intakes: a Comparison of Four European Countries. Eur J Nutr. 2019;58(4):1475-1493. PubMed PMID: 29594476.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Geographic and socioeconomic diversity of food and nutrient intakes: a comparison of four European countries. AU - Mertens,Elly, AU - Kuijsten,Anneleen, AU - Dofková,Marcela, AU - Mistura,Lorenza, AU - D'Addezio,Laura, AU - Turrini,Aida, AU - Dubuisson,Carine, AU - Favret,Sandra, AU - Havard,Sabrina, AU - Trolle,Ellen, AU - Van't Veer,Pieter, AU - Geleijnse,Johanna M, Y1 - 2018/03/28/ PY - 2017/07/28/received PY - 2018/03/22/accepted PY - 2018/3/30/pubmed PY - 2020/1/23/medline PY - 2018/3/30/entrez KW - Diet KW - Dietary guidelines KW - Europe KW - Foods KW - Nutrients KW - SUSFANS SP - 1475 EP - 1493 JF - European journal of nutrition JO - Eur J Nutr VL - 58 IS - 4 N2 - PURPOSE: Public health policies and actions increasingly acknowledge the climate burden of food consumption. The aim of this study is to describe dietary intakes across four European countries, as baseline for further research towards healthier and environmentally-friendlier diets for Europe. METHODS: Individual-level dietary intake data in adults were obtained from nationally-representative surveys from Denmark and France using a 7-day diet record, Italy using a 3-day diet record, and Czech Republic using two replicates of a 24-h recall. Energy-standardised food and nutrient intakes were calculated for each subject from the mean of two randomly selected days. RESULTS: There was clear geographical variability, with a between-country range for mean fruit intake from 118 to 199 g/day, for vegetables from 95 to 239 g/day, for fish from 12 to 45 g/day, for dairy from 129 to 302 g/day, for sweet beverages from 48 to 224 ml/day, and for alcohol from 8 to 15 g/day, with higher intakes in Italy for fruit, vegetables and fish, and in Denmark for dairy, sweet beverages and alcohol. In all countries, intakes were low for legumes (< 20 g/day), and nuts and seeds (< 5 g/day), but high for red and processed meat (> 80 g/day). Within countries, food intakes also varied by socio-economic factors such as age, gender, and educational level, but less pronounced by anthropometric factors such as overweight status. For nutrients, intakes were low for dietary fibre (15.8-19.4 g/day) and vitamin D (2.4-3.0 µg/day) in all countries, for potassium (2288-2938 mg/day) and magnesium (268-285 mg/day) except in Denmark, for vitamin E in Denmark (6.7 mg/day), and for folate in Czech Republic (212 µg/day). CONCLUSIONS: There is considerable variation in food and nutrient intakes across Europe, not only between, but also within countries. Individual-level dietary data provide insight into the heterogeneity of dietary habits beyond per capita food supply data, and this is crucial to balancing healthy and environmentally-friendly diets for European citizens. SN - 1436-6215 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29594476/Geographic_and_socioeconomic_diversity_of_food_and_nutrient_intakes:_a_comparison_of_four_European_countries L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-018-1673-6 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -