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Dietary Intakes of EPA and DHA Omega-3 Fatty Acids among US Childbearing-Age and Pregnant Women: An Analysis of NHANES 2001-2014.
Nutrients. 2018 03 28; 10(4)N

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommend that the general population should consume about 8 ounces (oz.) per week of a variety of seafood, providing approximately 250 mg per day of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and that pregnant and lactating women should consume 8–12 oz. per week of seafood.

METHODS

We determined the usual intakes, percentage not meeting recommendations, and trends in EPA and DHA intakes among childbearing-age and pregnant women (15–44 years of age) using the NHANES cycles 2001–2002 through 2013–2014.

RESULTS

For the childbearing-age women, the mean usual intake of seafood was 0.44 ± 0.02 oz. equivalent per day and 100% of the population was below the DGA recommendation. Mean usual intakes of EPA, DHA, and combined EPA and DHA from foods and dietary supplements combined were 26.8 ± 1.4, 62.2 ± 1.9, and 88.1 ± 3.0 mg per day, respectively. Over 95% of the sample did not meet the daily intakes of 250 mg EPA and DHA. Similar results were observed for pregnant women. After controlling for covariates, there were slight but significant increases in EPA and DHA intakes from foods and dietary supplements over the 14-year span among childbearing-age (p = 0.005) and pregnant women (p = 0.002).

CONCLUSIONS

It was estimated that a majority of U.S. childbearing-age and pregnant women consumed significantly lower amounts of seafood than what the DGA recommends, which subsequently leads to low intakes of EPA and DHA; in addition, dietary supplement use has not eliminated the nutrient shortfall.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Nutrition and Scientific Affairs, The Nature's Bounty Co., Ronkonkoma, NY 11779, USA. jazhang@nbty.com.Nutrition Impact LLC, Battle Creek, MI 49014, USA. vic3rd@aol.com.Department of Nutritional Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, 110 Chandlee Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802, USA. pmk3@psu.edu.Nutrition and Scientific Affairs, The Nature's Bounty Co., Ronkonkoma, NY 11779, USA. susanhazels@hotmail.com.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29597261

Citation

Zhang, Zhiying, et al. "Dietary Intakes of EPA and DHA Omega-3 Fatty Acids Among US Childbearing-Age and Pregnant Women: an Analysis of NHANES 2001-2014." Nutrients, vol. 10, no. 4, 2018.
Zhang Z, Fulgoni VL, Kris-Etherton PM, et al. Dietary Intakes of EPA and DHA Omega-3 Fatty Acids among US Childbearing-Age and Pregnant Women: An Analysis of NHANES 2001-2014. Nutrients. 2018;10(4).
Zhang, Z., Fulgoni, V. L., Kris-Etherton, P. M., & Mitmesser, S. H. (2018). Dietary Intakes of EPA and DHA Omega-3 Fatty Acids among US Childbearing-Age and Pregnant Women: An Analysis of NHANES 2001-2014. Nutrients, 10(4). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040416
Zhang Z, et al. Dietary Intakes of EPA and DHA Omega-3 Fatty Acids Among US Childbearing-Age and Pregnant Women: an Analysis of NHANES 2001-2014. Nutrients. 2018 03 28;10(4) PubMed PMID: 29597261.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Dietary Intakes of EPA and DHA Omega-3 Fatty Acids among US Childbearing-Age and Pregnant Women: An Analysis of NHANES 2001-2014. AU - Zhang,Zhiying, AU - Fulgoni,Victor L, AU - Kris-Etherton,Penny M, AU - Mitmesser,Susan Hazels, Y1 - 2018/03/28/ PY - 2018/02/07/received PY - 2018/03/27/revised PY - 2018/03/27/accepted PY - 2018/3/31/entrez PY - 2018/3/31/pubmed PY - 2018/9/18/medline KW - EPA and DHA KW - NHANES 2001–2014 KW - childbearing-age and pregnant women KW - dietary intake KW - seafood JF - Nutrients JO - Nutrients VL - 10 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND: The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommend that the general population should consume about 8 ounces (oz.) per week of a variety of seafood, providing approximately 250 mg per day of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and that pregnant and lactating women should consume 8–12 oz. per week of seafood. METHODS: We determined the usual intakes, percentage not meeting recommendations, and trends in EPA and DHA intakes among childbearing-age and pregnant women (15–44 years of age) using the NHANES cycles 2001–2002 through 2013–2014. RESULTS: For the childbearing-age women, the mean usual intake of seafood was 0.44 ± 0.02 oz. equivalent per day and 100% of the population was below the DGA recommendation. Mean usual intakes of EPA, DHA, and combined EPA and DHA from foods and dietary supplements combined were 26.8 ± 1.4, 62.2 ± 1.9, and 88.1 ± 3.0 mg per day, respectively. Over 95% of the sample did not meet the daily intakes of 250 mg EPA and DHA. Similar results were observed for pregnant women. After controlling for covariates, there were slight but significant increases in EPA and DHA intakes from foods and dietary supplements over the 14-year span among childbearing-age (p = 0.005) and pregnant women (p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: It was estimated that a majority of U.S. childbearing-age and pregnant women consumed significantly lower amounts of seafood than what the DGA recommends, which subsequently leads to low intakes of EPA and DHA; in addition, dietary supplement use has not eliminated the nutrient shortfall. SN - 2072-6643 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29597261/Dietary_Intakes_of_EPA_and_DHA_Omega_3_Fatty_Acids_among_US_Childbearing_Age_and_Pregnant_Women:_An_Analysis_of_NHANES_2001_2014_ L2 - http://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=nu10040416 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -